Psyc Exam #1

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Psychology

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127 Terms

1

Psychology

the study of behaviors and mental processes

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2

Biopsychology

study of the physical basis of psychological phenomenasuch as motivation, emotion, stress

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3

Sensation

process by which sensory organs gather information regardingthe environment to transmit to the brain for processing

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4

Perception

process by which the brain organizes and interprets sensation

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5

Authority

teachers, parents

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logic

what makes more sense

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7

intuition

go with your gut thinking

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8

science

experiments

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9

____ is the only self-correcting belief system

science

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10

Reliability

if a measure found in a study stays consistent across multipletrials where the same design, procedures, and measurements are used

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11

Validity

if a study or trial measures precisely what it claims to measure

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12

Internal Validity

the results of the study are not influenced by any variablesbesides the dependent and independent variables

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13

Experiment is high in..

internal validity

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14

External Validity

If a study's results can be generalized to real-worldsituations outside of the study

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15

naturalistic observation is high in..

ecological validity

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16

Sample

the specific small group you are collecting data from

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17

Population

the entire group you want to draw conclusions from

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18

baised sample

a sample that is not representative of the population (not sharing characteristics)

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19

represtative sample

shares the same characteristics

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20

random sample

every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected

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21

random samples are

representative of the population

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22

Case Study

an in depth observation of a small group of subjects of a single subject

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23

Correlational Research

aims to discover the relationship between two variables

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24

correlation....

does NOT prove causation

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data is also known as

observations

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26

Negative Correlation

as X increases, Y decreases

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positve correlation

as x increases, y increases

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28

Interview

self-report techniques that involve an experimenter asking participants questions

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29

Experiment

involves the manipulation of an independent variable (X) and the measurement of a dependent variable (Y), establishes cause-and effect relationships between variables

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30

Questionnaire

a set of questions or prompts used to obtain information about a topic of interest

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31

Questionare vs. Interview

questionare:

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32

-not s baised

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-annonymous

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-not impacted by socisl opinions

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35

interview:

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-ask follow up questions

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37

-ususally face to face

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38

Naturalistic Observation

recording the behavior of subjects in real world settings

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39

____ are the least reactive research method

naturalistic observation

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40

Neuron

The basic unit of the nervous system

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41

Afferent Neuron

transmit information from receptors to the brain

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42

Information can be transmitted directly or through the..

spinal cord

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43

afferent nuerons are also called..

sensory neurons

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44

Synapse

where connections between neurons occur

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45

Corpus callosum

connects the left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum

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46

Brain Plasticity

functions originally assigned to certain brain areas may bereassigned to other areas of the brain

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47

Sympathetic nervous system

prepares the body for fight or flight

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48

The Endocrine System is..

a collection of glands that secrete hormones intothe bloodstream

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49

Adrenal glands

Secrete "emergency hormones" like epinephrine andnorepinephrine

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50

Hypothalamus

Regulates important body functions such as hunger,temperature, blood sugar levels, sleep, and sexual activity

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51

Vestibular Sense

The sensory system that provide information aboutbalance

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52

Binocular cues

cues for precieving depth based on BOTH eyes

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Monocular cues

cues for precieving depth based on ONE eye

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Know the different parts of the eyes.

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55

Occipital Lobe

Brain lobe located in the rear portion of the cortex, responsible for vision

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56

if there is a blind spot somewhere, ______ so the brain sees a continuous background

perception will fill in the missing spots

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57

Learning

A relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge that results from experience or practice

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58

Unconditioned (unlearned) responses

a natural (unlearned) reaction to a given stimulus

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59

Conditioned (learned) responses

behavior caused by the conditioned stimulus

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60

Unconditioned stimulus (UCS).

a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response in an organism

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61

Neutral stimulus (NS)

a stimulus that does not naturally elicit a response.

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Conditioned stimulus (CS)

a stimulus that elicits a response after repeatedly beingpaired with an unconditioned stimulus.

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Stimulus Generalization

When an organism demonstrates the conditioned response tostimuli that are similar to the condition stimulus.

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Stimulus Discrimination

When an organism learns to respond differently to variousstimuli that are similar

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Extinction

A decrease in the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is nolonger paired with the conditioned stimulus

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Acquisition

A period of initial learning in classical conditioning in which a human or ananimal begins to connect a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that theneutral stimulus will begin to elicit the conditioned response

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67

Behaviorism

a theory of learning based on the idea that all behaviors areacquired through conditioning

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Conditioning occurs..

through interactions with the external environment

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Operant Conditioning

Organisms learn to associate a behavior and its consequence

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Classical Conditioning

A process by which we learn to associate stimuliand, consequently, to anticipate events.

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Shaping

When we reward successive approximationsof a target behavior.

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Fixed-interval

same reinforcement at predictable (same) time intervals (controlled pain meds)

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Variable Interval

different amount of reinforcement at unpredicted time intervals (checking socail media)

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Fixed Ratio

same reinforcement after predictable (same) amount of response/work (piecework - getting x amt of $ for x amt of items)

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Variable Ratio

different amount of reinforcement is delivered after an unredictable number of repsonses/work (gambling)

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76

___ is the strongest resistence to exticntion

ratio variable

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conditioning is also known as..

learning

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78

classical conditioning is also known as

Pavlovian conditioning

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79

glial cells

cells in the nervous system that support to grow, nourish (deliver nutrients), and protect (produce myelin) neurons

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80

Serotonin

Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal

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81

dopamine

influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion

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autonomic nervous system

automatic controls/bodily functions (heart beat, digestion, breathing)

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somatic nervous system

controls voluntary control/movements

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parasympathetic nervous system

calms the body to conserve energy

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85

autonomic + somatic are subdivisions of the..

peripheral nervous system

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86

sympathetic + parasympathetic nervous system is subdivisons of the

autonomic nervous system

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87

Neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons

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88

sensory signals go from

body to brain (ascending)

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89

motor signals go from

brain to body (decending)

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90

hormones are

chemical messengers or neurotransmitters

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91

cerebrum is

responsible for voluntary activities of the body (underneath cerebral cortex)

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92

cerebral cortex

the body's ultimate control and information-processing center (covering over cerebrum)

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93

most actions..

cross the Left + Right hemispheres

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94

vision

detects light

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95

hearing

detects sound waves

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96

touch

detects pressure, temerpature (hot vs. cold), pain

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97

taste + smell

detect chemicals

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98

balance

sense of gravity

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99

kinaethesia

sense of movement

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100

Proprioception

sense of limb position

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