Midterm

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Endocrine system

1 / 112

Tags and Description

Intro and Chapter 1-5

113 Terms

1

Endocrine system

The system of the body that produces, circulates, and regulates hormones

New cards
2

Hormones

Highly specialized substances secreted by one or more endocrine glands

New cards
3

Glands

Organs that stimulate particular parts of the body to respond in specific ways to particular hormones

New cards
4

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons

Specialized neurons that are activated by certain pubertal hormones

New cards
5

Set point

A physiological level or setting (e.g., of a specific hormone) that the body attempts to maintain through a self-regulating system

New cards
6

Feedback loop

A cycle through which two or more bodily functions respond to and regulate each other, such as that formed by the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the gonads

New cards
7

Pituitary Gland

One of the chief glands responsible for regulating levels of hormones in the body

New cards
8

Hypothalamus

A part of the brain that controls the functioning of the pituitary gland

New cards
9

Gonads

The glands that secrete sex hormones: in males, the testes; in females, the ovaries

New cards
10

Testes

Male gonads

New cards
11

Ovaries

Female gonads

New cards
12

Andorgens

A class of sex hormones secreted by the gonads, found in both sexes but in higher levels among males than females following puberty

New cards
13

Estrogens

A class of sex hormones secreted by the gonads, found in both sexes but in higher levels among females than males following puberty

New cards
14

Adrenarche

The maturation of the adrenal glands that takes place during adolescence

New cards
15

Cortisol

A hormone produces when a person is exposed to stress

New cards
16

Kisspeptin

A brain chemical believed to trigger the onset of puberty

New cards
17

Peptin

A protein produced by the fat cells that may play a role in the onset of puberty through its impact on kisspeptin

New cards
18

Melatonin

A hormone secreted by the brain that contributes top sleepiness and that triggers the onset of puberty through its impact on kisspeptin

New cards
19

Adolescent growth spurt

The dramatic increase in height and weight that occurs during puberty

New cards
20

Epiphysis

The closing of the ends of the bones, which terminates growth after the adolescent growth spurt has been completed

New cards
21

Secondary sex characteristics

The manifestations of sexual maturity at puberty, including the development of breasts, the growth of facial and body hair, and changes in the voice

New cards
22

Tanner stages

Widely used system that describes the five stages of pubertal development

New cards
23

Menarche

The time of first menstruation, one of the most important changes to occur among females during puberty

New cards
24

Pheromones

A class of chemicals secreted by animals that stimulate certain behaviours in other members of the species

New cards
25

Secular trend

The tendency, over the past two centuries, for individuals to be larger in stature and to reach puberty earlier, primarily because of improvements in health and nutrition

New cards
26

Basal metabolism rate

The minimal amount of energy used by the body during a resting state

New cards
27

Body mass index (BMI)

A measure of an individual’s body fat, the ratio of weight to height; used to gauge overweight and obesity

New cards
28

Disordered eating

Mild, moderate, or severe disturbance in eating habits and attitudes

New cards
29

Anorexia nervosa

An eating disorder found  chiefly among young women, characterized by dramatic and severe self-induced weight loss

New cards
30

Bulimia

An eating disorder found primarily among young women, characterized by a pattern of binge eating and extreme weight-loss measures, including self-induced vomiting

New cards
31

Binge eating disorder

An eating disorder characterized by a pattern of binge eating that is not accompanied by drastic attempts to lose weight

New cards
32

Cognitive-developmental view

A perspective on development, based on the work of Piaget that takes a qualitative, stage-theory approach

New cards
33

Sensorimotor period

The first stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, spanning the period roughly between birth and age 2

New cards
34

Preoperational period

The second stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, spanning roughly ages 2 to 5

New cards
35

Concrete operations

The third stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, spanning the period roughly between age 6 and early adolescence

New cards
36

Formal operations

The fourth stage of cognitive development, according to Piaget, spinning the period from early adolescence through adulthood

New cards
37

Information-processing perspective

A perspective on cognition that derives from the study of artificial intelligence and attempts to explain cognitive development in terms of the growth of specific components of the thinking process (such as memory)

New cards
38

Selective attention

The process by which we focus on one stimulus while tuning out another

New cards
39

Divided attention

The process of paying attention to two or more stimuli at the same time

New cards
40

Working memory

That aspect of memory in which information is held for a short time while a problem is being solved

New cards
41

Long-term memory

The ability to recall something from a long time ago

New cards
42

Autobiographical memory

The recall of personally meaningful past events

New cards
43

Reminiscence bump

The fact that experiences from adolescence are generally recalled more than experiences from other stages of life

New cards
44

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

A technique used to produce images of the brain, often while the subject is performing some sort of mental task

New cards
45

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)

A technique used to produce images of the brain that shows connections among different regions

New cards
46

Brain structure

The physical form and organization of the brain

New cards
47

Brain function

Patterns of brain activity

New cards
48

Neurons

Nerve cells

New cards
49

Neurotransmitters

Specialized chemicals that carry electrical impulses between neurons

New cards
50

Synaptic pruning

The process through which unnecessary connections between neurons are eliminated, improving the efficiency of information processing

New cards
51

Myelination

The process through which brain circuits are insulated with myelin, which improves the efficiency of information processing

New cards
52

Plasticity

The capacity of the brain to change in response to experience

New cards
53

Developmental plasticity

Extensive remodelling of the brain’s circuitry in response to experiences during childhood and adolescence, while the brain is still maturing

New cards
54

Adult plasticity

Relatively minor changes in brain circuits as a result of experiences during adulthood, after the brain has matured

New cards
55

Prefrontal cortex

The region of the brain most important for sophisticated thinking abilities, such as planning, thinking ahead, weighing risks and rewards, and controlling impulses

New cards
56

Limbic system

An area of the brain that plays an important role in the processing of emotional experience, social information, and reward and punishment

New cards
57

Response inhibition

The suppression of a behaviour that is inappropriate or no longer required

New cards
58

Execution function

More advanced thinking abilities, enabled chiefly by the maturation of the prefrontal cortex, especially in early adolescence

New cards
59

Functional connectivity

The extent to which multiple brain regions function at the same time, which improves during adolescence

New cards
60

Dopamine

A neurotransmitter especially important in the brain circuits that regulate the experience of reward

New cards
61

Serotonin

A neurotransmitter that is especially important for the experience of different moods

New cards
62

Positive risk taking

Risk-taking that promotes healthy psychological development

New cards
63

Zone of proximal development

In Vygotsky’s theory, the level of challenge that is still within the individual’s reach but that forces an individual to develop more advanced skills

New cards
64

Scaffolding

Structuring a learning situation so that it is just within the reach of the student

New cards
65

Social cognition

The aspect of cognition that concerns thinking about other people, about interpersonal relations, and about social institutions

New cards
66

Mentalizing

The ability to understand someone else’s mental state

New cards
67

Theory of mind

The ability to understand that others have beliefs, intentions, and knowledge that may be different from one’s own

New cards
68

Social conventions

The norms that govern everyday behaviour in social situations

New cards
69

Behavioural decision theory

An approach to understanding adolescent risk-taking, in which behaviours are seen as the outcome of systematic decision-making processes

New cards
70

Sensation seeking

The pursuit of experiences that are novel exciting

New cards
71

Social redefinition

The process through which an individual’s position or status is redefined by society

New cards
72

Age of majority

The designated age at which an individual is recognized as an adult

New cards
73

Statutory rape

Sex between two individuals, even when it is consensual when at least one of the persons is below the legal age of consent; in the United States, the specific age of consent varies from state to state

New cards
74

Inventionists

Theorists who argue that the period of adolescence is mainly a social invention

New cards
75

Child protectionists

Individuals who argued, early in the twentieth century, that adolescents needed to be kept out of the labor force in order to protect them from the hazards of the workplace

New cards
76

Teenager

A term popularized about 50 years ago to young people; it connoted a more frivolous and lighthearted image than did adolescent

New cards
77

Youth

Today, a term used to refer to individuals ages 18 to 22; it once referred to individuals ages 12 to 24

New cards
78

Initiation ceremony

The formal induction of a young person into adulthood

New cards
79

Status offense

A violation of the law that pertains to minors but not adults

New cards
80

Juvenile justice system

A separate system of courts and related institutions developed to handle juvenile crime and delinquency

New cards
81

Criminal justice system

The system of courts and related institutions developed to handle adult crime

New cards
82

Cohort

A group of individuals born during the same general historical era

New cards
83

Quinceañera

An elaborate sort of “coming-out” celebration for adolescent girls that is practiced in many Latinx communities

New cards
84

Scarification

The intentional creation of scars on some part or parts of the body, often done as part of an inhibition ceremony

New cards
85

Baby boom

The period following World War II, during which the number of infants born was extremely large

New cards
86

Continuous transitions

Passages into adulthood in which adult roles and statuses are entered into gradually

New cards
87

Discontinuous transitions

Passages into adulthood in which adult roles and statuses are entered into abruptly

New cards
88

Collective efficacy

A community’s social capital, derived from its members’ common values and goals

New cards
89

Self-fulfilling prophecy

The idea that individuals’ behaviour is influenced by others’ expectations for them

New cards
90

Family systems theory

A perspective on family functioning that emphasizes interactions among different family relationships (such as marital, parent-child, sibling

New cards
91

Midlife crisis

A psychological crisis over identity believed to occur between the ages of 35 and 45, the age range of most adolescents’ parents

New cards
92

Familism

An orientation toward life in which the needs of one’s family take precedence over the needs of the individual

New cards
93

Generational dissonance

Divergence of views between adolescents and parents that is common in families of immigrants parents and American-born adolescents (first-generation)

New cards
94

Parental responsiveness

One of the two important dimensions of parenting; responsiveness refers to the degree to which the parent responds to the child’s needs in an accepting, supportive manner

New cards
95

Parental demandingness

On of two dimensions of parenting; demandingness refers to the degree to which the parent expects and insists on mature, responsible behaviour from the child

New cards
96

Authoritative parents

Parents who use warmth, firm control, and rational, issue-oriented discipline, in which emphasis is place on the development of self-direction

New cards
97

Authoritarian parents

Parents who use punitive, absolute, and forceful discipline, and who place a premium on obedience and conformity 

New cards
98

Indulgent parents

Parents who are characterized by responsiveness but low demandingness and who are mainly concerned with the child’s happiness

New cards
99

Indifferent parents

Parents who are characterized by low levels of both responsiveness and demandingness

New cards
100

Behavioural genetics

The scientific study of genetic influences on behaviour

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 29 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10273 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(44)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard59 terms
studied byStudied by 35 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard36 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard67 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard54 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard50 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard84 terms
studied byStudied by 71 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard74 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)