bio lab midterm

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What is plagiarism?

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169 Terms

1

What is plagiarism?

is the act of taking another person's writing, conversation, song, or even idea and passing it off as your own.

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2

What is an internal citation?

An internal, in-text, or parenthetical citation refers to the practice of giving credit to an author, singer, or speaker by citing their words/ideas within the text of your paper. This internal citation is then referenced in a list similar to a bibliography, but called something elterm-76se. For example, MLA style calls this list a Works Cited page and APA calls it References.

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What is a works cited page?

A list of sources that were "cited" or used in a paper. Typically the "Works Cited" comes at the end of a paper. Each entry is listed in alphabetical order by the author's last name.

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What is "common knowledge"?

Information that can be found in general reference books. For example, the United States was founded in 1776, has 50 states, and sent astronauts to the moon in 1969. Common knowledge exceptions may also apply within a particular group and therefore depends on the expected audience of readers.

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needs no internal citation in a paper. Common knowledge includes information that is considered a well-established fact verifiable in five or more sources. It also includes common sayings and proverbs ("look before you leap") and historical dates, places and events.

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What is a "unique phrase"?

does need an internal citation. A unique phrase is one which is coined by an author and used commonly by other authors in a specific genre or discipline, but it is not necessarily a common fact or phrase used by everyone.

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Steps of the Scientific Method

observation, hypothesis, experiment, conclusion

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Be able to define and create a hypothesis

a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.

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If ... then ... because

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Know the difference between a theory and a hypothesis

Theory: an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.

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Hypothesis: a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.

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Compound Microscope

A light microscope that has more than one lens

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Dissecting Microscope

A light microscope that uses reflected light to form a virtual image

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Calculate magnification

Image size/

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actual size x magnification

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or multiply by ten 4x times .10 becomes 40 magnification.

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Evolution

The gradual change in a species over time through natural selection, genetic variation and random mutation.

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Phylogenetic Tree

a diagram that shows the hypothesized evolutionary relationships among species.

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monophyletic group

include a common ancestor and all of its descendants. Monophyletic groups are also called clades, and represent an appropriate taxonomic group (taxon) that accurately reflects evolutionary history.

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paraphyletic group

includes a common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants.

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polyphyletic group

don't include the most recent common ancestor of all the species included in the group.

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Natural Selection

A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.

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Genetic Drift

A change in the allele frequency of a population as a result of chance events rather than natural selection.

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Genetic Drift: Founder Effect

the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population

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convergent evolution

Evolution toward similar characteristics in unrelated species

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divergent evolution

evolution of one or more closely related species into different species; resulting from adaptations to different environmental conditions

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Cyanobacteria

photosynthetic (autotrophs), contain chlorophyll a, phycocyanin, and phycoerythrin.

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some cyanobacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3), a process called nitrogen fixation. This form of nitrogen can be used by plants. The plants then use the ammonia and turn it back into nitrogen which the cyanobacteria can reuse as energy.

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Heterocyst

the specialized cells that they possess to perform nitrogen fixation // nitrogen-fixing cells

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Gram stain procedure

  1. Primary stain (Crystal violet- a basic stain)

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  1. Mordant (Gram's iodine- I2 + KI)

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(something that helps fix dye on or in a cell but does not itself contribute color)

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  1. decolorizing agent (Ethanol or acetone)

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  1. Counterstain (Safranin- a basic stain)

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Gram-positive bacteria

Bacteria that have a thick peptidoglycan cell wall, and no outer membrane. They stain very darkly (purple) in Gram stain.

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Gram-negative bacteria

Bacteria that have a thin peptidoglycan cell wall covered by an outer plasma membrane. They stain very lightly (pink) in Gram stain. Gram-negative bacteria are typically more resistant to antibiotics than Gram-positive bacteria.

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Eukaryotic cells

contain membrane-bound organelles, including a nucleus. Eukaryotes can be single-celled or multi-celled, such as you, me, plants, fungi, and insects.

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Prokaryotic cells

Prokaryotic cells do not contain a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelle. Prokaryotes include two groups: bacteria and another group called archaea.

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Supergroup Excavata

has a feeding groove seemingly excavated from the cell surface. Includes euglenoid, kinetoplast

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Euglenoids

single-celled. primarily live in fresh water. have characteristics of plants and animals. have flagella to propel them through the water.//are heterotrophic, but some can also preform photosynthesis, having acquired plastids through secondary endosymbiosis from green algae.

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Kinetoplastids

A group of protistans, including Trypanosoma, which have a single large mitochondrion associated with a kinetoplast that houses extranuclear DNA. Members of the kinetoplast group of excavate protists lack chloroplasts and other photosynthetic plastids.

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Euglena sp.

Domain: Eukarya

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Supergroup: Excavata

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Major Clade: Euglenozoans

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Subclade/Phylum: Euglenids

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Protist, mixotrophic, has photoreceptor, flagellate locomotion, sexual/asexual, stigma, autotrophic

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It is flexible due to its pellicle, a unique cell surface composed of the plasma membrane and protein strips underneath.

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Trypanosoma sp.

Parasite!

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Domain: Eukarya

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Kingdom: Protista

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Phylum: Sarcomastigophora (Zoomastigotes, Flagellates)

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causes African Sleeping Sickness or African Trypanosoma

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appears eel-like and has an undulating membrane

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undulating membrane

a structure comprised of a flagella and the body wall used for swimming through viscous liquids such as blood

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Giardia lambia

is a parasitic excavate found in feces-contaminated water which causes giardiasis. Symptoms of giardiasis include water diarrhea, fever, cramps and vomiting.

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Supergroup SAR Clade

Stramenopiles, Alveolates, Rhizarians

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Clade Stramenopiles

named for straw like hairs that line the surface of their flagella. These hairs help them to swim faster and more efficiently.

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Stramenopila: Diatoms

are unicellular algae that contain the pigments chorophyll a and c as well as the golden-brown pigment xanthophyll. They live almost anywhere there is water, including damp soil and possess a cell wall made of silicon dioxide. They are very important because they provide 25% of the world's oxygen and is a food source for many.

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can be long and thin (pennate) or disc-like (centric). Some even form colonies in the shape of filaments, zig-zags, or stars.

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Stramenopila: Brown Algae (Phaeophyta)

Are multicellular seaweeds that may become quite large, as in giant kelps. Gas-filled floats called air bladders provide buoyancy. Holdfast is a root-like structure.

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Clade Alveolata

characterized by sac-like vesicles called alveoli that lie under the plasma membrane. The alveoli plays a role in ion transport and providing structural support.

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Alveolata: Dinoflagellates

characterized by two perpendicular flagella which makes them swim in a unique "whirling" pattern. Most also posses heavy cellulose plates that serve as protective "armor" and half of them have photosynthetic abilities. They are very important to the ecosystem as primary producers, endosymbionts of coral species, and producers of toxins

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Red Tide

is an example of a toxic bloom that is caused by a dinoflagellate species.

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Alveolata: Stentor sp.

Highly ciliated

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looks like a megaphone and is ciliated at the end.

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Stentor=senator=speaking=megaphone.

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Alveolata: Paramecium sp.

Has a feeding groove, water expulsion vacuole and macro-nucleus. Exhibits taxis.

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Taxis

A directional behavioral response to a stimulus.

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Clade Rhizaria

are planktonic heterotrophic marine organisms possessing very narrow pseudopodia which are supported by microtubules and are extruded through pores in the shells, which may be composed of silica (silicon dioxide, SiO2) or calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Such narrow pseudopodia may be referred to as axopodia.

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Ex: Radiolarians and Foraminifera

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Supergroup Unikonta

includes animals, fungi, and some protists, amoebozoas

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Phylum Amoebozoa

Move about and capture prey by means of pseudopods/by pseudopodia/amoeboid motion. They also participate in phagocytosis and most live in freshwater or damp soils.

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Amoebozoa: Ameoba sp.

move using extensions called pseudopods. Has a contractile vacuole which serves to maintain water balance by collecting and expelling excess water in the cell.

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contractile vesicles

which serves to maintain water balance by collecting and expelling excess water in the cell. it is a clear/white sphere.

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Phylum Mycetozoa

commonly known as slime molds or mycetozoans. relationship between slime mold and fungi is evolutionary convergence. eats white fungus. they digest internally. When conditions are right they produce a stalked reproductive structure with a sporangia on top of that contains clusters of spores.

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plasmodial slime molds

form a mass called a plasmodium, but despite its size, the plasmodium is not multicellular. It is a "supercell" that consists of a single mass of cytoplasm that is undivided by plasm membranes and that contains many nuclei.

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cellular slime mold

form solitary cells that function individually, however, when food is depleted, the cells form a slug-like aggregate that functions as a unit. These aggregated cells remain separated by their individual plasma membranes.

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Supergroup Archaeplastida

red algae, the green algae, and several minor groups of algae. all members of the archaeplastida contain plastids that were obtained through primary endosymbiosis, except supergroups Haptophytes and Chryptophytes have secondary plastids.

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Phylum Chlorophyta (green algae)

share many features with land plants, including the pigments chlorophyll a and b, the use of starch as energy storage molecule and cell walls composed of cellulose.

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Unicellular green algae: Chlamydomonas sp.

Unicellular green algae.

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Genus is Chlamydomonas.

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It is in the Phylum Chlorophyta.

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It is normally haploid and reproduces asexually (mitosis) but under adverse conditions it can produce gametes. The two types of gametes which are produced appear identical to one another (isogametes) (iso- = equals) and therefore referred to as + or -, rather than sperm and ovum.

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The egg-shaped cells have two flagella.

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Isogametes

The two types of gametes which are produced appear identical to one another (iso- = equals) and therefore referred to as + or -, rather than sperm and ovum.

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Zygospore

A + and a - gamete will fuse to produce a diploid zygospore that is extremely resistant. The zygospore will remain in a "resting" state until environmental conditions improve, at which point it will undergo meiosis to produce haploid spores that develop into adult cells.

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Stigma

a light sensitive organ that appears reddish brown by the flagella

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filamentous green algae: Spirogyra sp.

it forms long, unbranched filaments of identical cells connected end-to-end.

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Genus: Spirogyra

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Colonial Green Algae: Volvox sp.

Genus: Volvox

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a spherical colony which consists of many cells similar to those of Chlamydomonas sp. Each cell synchronously beats its two flagella so that the colony is propelled through the water in a spinning motion. Can be considered multicellular because its cells are functionally differentiated. Some cells are able to produce new colonies through asexual reproduction, while other cells are specialized to produce sperm and eggs for sexual reproduction.

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Daughter Colonies

form inside parent colony and the parent colony must burst to release them. Smaller spheres inside the colony, they are the product of asexual reproduction.

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Multicellular green algae: Caulerpa sp.

Genus: Caulerpa

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is a common marine alga which can be found attached to various substartes and regularly washes up on beaches.

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Phylum Rhodophyta: Red Algae

are one of the oldest and largest groups of eukaryotic algae. They are important food source and play a key role in the formation of tropical reefs. They are red because of the presence of the pigment phycoerythrin.

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Charophyceans

A member of the green algal group that shares features with land plants and are considered the closest relatives of the land plants.

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Meristems

regions of rapidly dividing cells

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alternation of generations

A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid (2N) form, the sporophyte,

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and

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a multicellular haploid (N) form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants and some algae.

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