GCSE Chemistry: Topics A-J

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What is all matter made of

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418 Terms

1

What is all matter made of

particles

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2

Solid arrangement

Regular, fixed pattern

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3

Solid movement

Particles vibrate around a fixed position

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4

Solid energy

Least energy

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5

Liquid arrangement

close together, random arrangement

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6

Liquid movement

Flow freely, restricted by force

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7

Liquid energy

Increased energy

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8

Gas arrangement

Far apart, random, free

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9

Gas movement

Free, unrestricted

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10

Gas energy

High kinetic energy

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11

Solid to gas

sublimation

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12

Gas to solid

deposition

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13

In a cooling curve, what does the horizontal line mean

Change of state

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14

Temperature during change of state

Stays the same

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15

Element

a simple substance formed by one type of atom

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16

Compound

more than one type of atom chemically bonded together

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17

Pure

one type of element or compound, same in all parts of a substance

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18

Mixture

2 or more different substances not chemically bonded together, can be separated by physical processes

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19

Diatonic molecule

A molecule consisting of two atoms

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20

Process to separate a liquid and insoluble solid

Filter, dry

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21

Process to separate liquid and one soluble solid

Evaporation, crystallisation

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22

Process to separate liquid and multiple soluble solids

Chromatography

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23

Process to separate liquids with close boiling points

Fractional distillation

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24

Process to separate liquid with different boiling points

Simple distillation

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25

Saturated

When no more solute can dissolve in a solution

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26

Solubility

The ability to dissolve in another substance

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27

Solute

The substance which dissolves in a solution

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28

Solution

The name for a mixture of a solute and a solvent

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29

pure substance melts

At a single, fixed point

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30

Solvent

A liquid which dissolves a solute

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31

Solute + solvent =

solution

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32

To separate a solute from a solution

Crystallisation

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33

How crystallisation

Solvent evaporates to form saturated

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34

Difference between chemical and physical change

Reversibility

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35

What does chromatography separate

Mixtures of soluble substances

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36

3 purposes of chromatography

Distinguish between pure and impure, identify substances through resulting pattern, rf value

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37

Mobile phase is

solvent

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38

what is the stationary phase?

Chromatography paper

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39

What is the solvent front

Where the water stops moving

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40

The colour highest up in chromatography is the

Most soluble

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41

Rf value =

Distance travelled by solute / distance travelled by solvent

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42

Exothermic

releases energy

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43

Endothermic

Absorbs heat

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44

Simple distillation separates

A solvent from a solution

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45

In distillation, what is the point of anti

bumping granuals

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46

Condenser

Tube surrounded by cold water

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47

Fractional distillation separates

Liquids with similar boiling points

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48

Why do we use pencils to mark the baseline

Graphite isn't soluble

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49

What would happen is we used tap water in experiments

Anomalies

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50

purifying water 7 steps

Screening, sedementation, coagulation, filter, pH and chlorination, distribute, our taps

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51

Purifying water screening

Remove large objects

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52

Purifying water sedimentation

Solids sink

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53

Purifying water Filtration

Very small particles are removed

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54

Purifying water coagulation

Clump dirt together

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55

Purifying water ph and Chlorination

Check and Kill bacteria and viruses

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56

Dalton's Atomic Theory (4)

Atoms are the smallest part of a substance that can exist, atoms do not carry an overall charge, atoms cannot be created or destroyed, atoms are in the same in an element

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57

Proton charge

+1

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58

Proton relative mass

1

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59

neutron charge

0

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60

Neutron relative mass

1

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61

Electron charge

-1

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62

Electron relative mass

1/1840

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63

Relative mass is

Average mass

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64

Isotope

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

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65

Relative formula mass

The sum of the relative atomic masses of the elements

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66

Relative atomic mass

Mean mass of the neutron, taking into account all of the isotopes

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67

Did everyone order the elements by atomic mass and properties

Yes

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68

what did mendeleev do differently

Gaps for undiscovered, predict, not always atomic mass order

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69

How do we order the elements different to mendeleev

Increasing Atomic number, not mass

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70

Rows

Periods

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71

Coloumns

Groups

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72

Ar =

(% x isotope) / 100

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73

Group 1

alkali metals

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74

Group 2

alkaline earth metals

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75

Group 3

12

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76

Group 7 /17

Halogens

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77

Group 8/18

noble gases

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78

Qualities of non metals

dull colour, don’t conduct, low bp,

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79

Ion

Atom or group of atoms with a positive or negative charge

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80

Positive ions are

cations

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81

Negative ions are

anions

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82

Inurt

Unreactive

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83

Charges of compounds

None

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84

Ionic bonding

The electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions

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85

Covalent bond

Shared pair or electrons

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86

Bonds in covalent bonds

Weak intermolecular forces

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87

Metallic bond

the electrostatic attraction between positive ions and a sea of delocalised electrons

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88

Qualities of metals (4)

malleable, not brittle, ductile, conductors

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89

How do delocalised electrons help conduction

Layers can slide past one another

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90

Compound ends in ate

3 + elements, one in O

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91

compound ends in ide

2 elements

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92

Conservation of mass

Total mass of reactants is equal to the total mass of products, matter cannot be created or destroyed

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93

2 reasons for mass change

Takes something from the air, gas escapes

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94

Ionic lattis/crystalline structure

Alternation between positive and negative charged ions

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95

Avogadro's constant

6.02 x 10^23 mol

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96

Mass, moles, rfm

n = m / rf,

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97

Relative formula mass symbol

Mr.

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98

Amount in moles =

Number of atoms, molecules, ions / avogadro's constant

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99

Molecular formulae represents

The actual number of atoms of each element in one molecule

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100

Empirical formulae

The simplest whole number ratio of atoms/ions of each element in a substance

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