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ANCIENT GREECE

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ANCIENT GREECE

Philosophers view humans as bearers of irreplaceable values

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MEDIEVAL TIMES

Philosophers and Saints like Thomas Aquinas believed that the body constitutes individuality.

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RENAISSANCE THOUGHT

Individual was its focus with Rene Descartes “I think Therefore I am” as the epitome of the Western idea of self.

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Analytical

  • Tendency to see reality as an aggregate of parts.

  • The self is an observer separate and distinct from external objects (Me versus Others)

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MONOTHEISTIC

  • Tendency toward unitary explanations of phenomena and a closed-system view of the self as modeled after a unitary, omnipotent power. (Man was created by God in His image)

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INDIVIDUALISM

  • Self-expression and self- actualization are important ways of establishing who one Is as well as satisfaction in the world

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MATERIALISTIC/RATIONALISTIC

  • Tends to discredit explanations in using analytic – deductive modes of thinking.

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VEDAS

  • Also called sruti (“what is heard”) literature

  • Earliest religious writing in the East which formed the Hindu philosophy

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DHARMA

  • religious and moral law governing individual conduct and is one of the four ends of life

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BRAHMAN

  • Described as the true nature of human which is a divine universal consciousness encompassing the universe.

  • It is the SELF that is within us

  • In Hinduism, to perceive the “Brahman” one must change his/her perception of the world (ascetic life)

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ANATTA

– a doctrine which is defined as “no – self or no – soul” emphasizing that sense of being a permanent, autonomous ‘self’ is an illusion; it is also the teaching that there is no eternal unchanging “self/soul” inhabiting the body

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CONFUCIANISM

  • The quest for the self in terms of substance, spirit, body, or essence does not exist.

  • His concept of self is that of personality

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CONFUCIUS

“It does not matter how slowly you go as long as you do not stop”

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Confucian Philosophy

presented the idea that every person is born with four beginning of the “pre – self” or a “potential self.”

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Heart of compassion that leads to Jen

  • Means goodwill, sympathy toward others, politeness, and generosity

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Heart of righteousness that leads to Yi

  • Means rightness and the respect of duty (respecting one’s position as guardian toward nature and humanity)

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Heart of propriety that leads to Li

Means having the right to practice propriety in all that a person does

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Heart of wisdom that leads to Chih

Means wisdom, which is expressed by putting Jen, Yi, and li into practice.

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Taoism (Tao – Heaven)

Self is one of the countless manifestations of the Tao and an extension of the cosmos

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For Chuang – tzu (Zhuang Zhou)

  • “The perfect man has no self, the spiritual man has no achievement, the true sage has no name.”

  • The ideal is selflessness.

  • His idea of selfhood entails conscious self –transformation leading to a balance life in harmony with the nature and society

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NAFS

arabic word for self which means Holy Qur'an that pertains to the psyche

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ISLAMIC TRADITION

Self is both used in the individualistic and collective sense.

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WESTERN SOCIETY

it strives to find and prove “the truth”

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EASTERN SOCIETY

accepts the truth as given and is more interested in finding the balance

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WESTERNERS

put more stock in individual rights

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COLLECTIVE SELF

Represents the self in a collective view

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COLLECTIVISTS

✓ Emphasize the interdependence and harmonious relatedness with one another. ✓ Gives importance in maintaining social networks, good relationship and in fulfilling obligations.

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ROY BAUMEISTER

– proposed the self- concept could be organized into three aspects:

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PRIVATE

refers to mental processes that perceives one’s own traits or behaviors (I am kind)

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PUBLIC

– refers to the generalized view of self-such as the perception of how others view you (people think I am kind.)

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COLLECTIVE

refers to the view of self in a collective concept. (My family expects me to be kind)

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ZOE KRAVITZ

"Beauty is when you can appreciate yourself. When you love yourself, that’s when you’re most beautiful.”

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  1. Beauty is objective

  2. Beauty is subjective

Two most – debated views about beauty

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ST. AUGUSTINE

asked whether things were beautiful it gave delight, or whether it gave delight because it was beautiful.

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PLATO

connected beauty as a response to love and desire. He asserted that beauty exists in the realm of Forms, and that objects are found beautiful because they are a reflection of the idea of beauty that already exist in the realm of forms.

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ARISTOTLE

  • asserted that the chief forms of beauty are orders, symmetry, and definiteness.

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DAVID HUME

He noted that beauty is no quality in things themselves. It exists merely in the mind which contemplates them, and each mind perceives a different beauty.

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IMMANUEL KANT

He said that the judgement of taste is therefore not as judgement of cognition and is consequently not logical but aesthetical.

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FRANCIS HUTCHESON

He said that the perception of beauty does depend on the external sense of sight. However, internal sense of beauty operates as an internal or reflect sense.

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COGNITIVE BIAS

It refers to error in reasoning, evaluating, remembering or any other mental process.

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41

HALO EFFECT

  • (also known as physical attractiveness stereotype and the “what is beautiful is good” principle)

  • refers to the tendency of people to rate attractive individuals more as compared to those less attractive

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FOR FEMALE RATERS

for them an attractive man is generally one with relatively prominent cheekbone and eyebrow ridges and relatively long lower face.

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FOR MALE RATERS

for them women who are attractive have prominent cheekbone, large eyes, small nose, a taller forehead, smooth skin and are overall young or even childlike appearance.

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CULTURAL TRADITION

It can either have a positive or a negative influence on body image and on self-esteem.

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BODY IMAGE

defined as how one thinks and feels toward one’s body.

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SELF - ESTEEM

It was coined by William James to refer to the number of successes a person achieves divided by the number of failures that occurred.

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SEX DETERMINING REGION OF THE Y CHROMOSOME (SRY)

For a fertilized egg to become male, a cascade of chemical reactions must be present initiated by a single gene in the male Y chromosome called the ______________

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48

PUBERTY

the stage of development at which individuals become sexually mature.

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49

STAGE ONE

  • stage of puberty approximately between 9 and 12 yrs in boys and 8 and 11 yrs old in girls

  • no sexual development but hormones become active

  • ovaries enlarge

  • growth spurt begins

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50

STAGE TWO

  • ages 9 to 15 in boys; ages 8 to 14 in girls

  • height increase, body shape change

  • breast develops, nipples begin tender

  • muscle and tissue fats developed

  • aureole darkens and increases

  • testicles and scrotum grows but penis don't

  • pubic hair grows

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51

STAGE THREE

  • ages 11 to 16 in boys; ages 9 to 15 in girls

  • penis starts to enlarge

  • whitish discharge from the vagina may present

  • shoulders broaden

  • mustache start to develop

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STAGE FOUR

  • age 11 to 17 in boys; ages 10 to 16 in girls

  • hair begin to grow in anus

  • facial and underarm hair increases

  • ejaculation appears; voice continue to deepen

  • start of ovularion

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STAGE FIVE

  • approximately 14 to 18 in boys; approximately 12 to 19 in girls

  • full adult height is reached

  • pubic hair is filled in

  • pubic hair and genitals have an adult appearance

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54

Erogenous Zone

areas of the body that are highly sensitive to stimuli and are often sexually exciting

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SKIN

serves as the primary erotic stimulus with two types of erogenous zones

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Prepuce

foreskin on the top of the penis and skin covering the top of the clitoris

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Penis

erectile organ of copulation where urine and semen are ejected—orifice)

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MONS PUBIS

fatty tissue on the pubic symphysis

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59

CLITORIS

female sexual organ that is small, sensitive, and located in front of opening of the vagina

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LABIA MAJORA

fleshly outer lips around the vagina

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LABIA MINORA

inner lips situated between the labia majora

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VAGINAL INTROITUS

opening of the vulva

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HYMEN

membrane that surrounds or covers the external vaginal opening

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PERIANAL SKIN

area surrounding the anus; very sensitive, thus susceptible to damage and injury

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LIPS

soft and movable skin; can be erogenous zone when used in kissing

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NIPPLES

raised regions of tissue on the surface of the breast.

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SEXUAL RESPONSE CYCLE (SRC)

the sequence of physical and emotional occurrences when the person is participating in a sexuality stimulating such as intercourse or masturbation.

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EXCITEMENT

  • Muscle tension increases. o Heart rate quickens and breathing is accelerated. o Nipples become hardened and erect. o Blood flow to the genitals increases, resulting in swelling of the woman’s clitoris and labia minora, and erection of man’s penis. o Vaginal lubrication begins o The man’s testicles swell, his scrotum tightens, and he begins secreting a lubricating fluid

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69

Plateau

o The vagina continues to swell from increased blood flow, and the vaginal walls turn to a dark purple. o Clitoris become highly sensitive, and man’s testicles are withdrawn up into the scrotum. o Muscle spasms may begin in the feet, face, and hands. Tension in the muscle increases.

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70

Orgasm

o Involuntary muscle contractions begin. o Blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing begin are at their highest rates, with a rapid intake of oxygen. o Muscles in the feet spasm. There is a sudden, forceful release of sexual tension. In women, the muscle of the vagina contract. o The uterus also undergoes rhythmic contractions. o In men, rhythmic contractions of the muscles at the base of the penis result in the ejaculation of semen

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Resolution

o Body slowly returns to its normal functioning level. o The swelled and erect body parts return to their previous size and color. o Marked by general sense of well-being; often fatigue sets in.

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REFRACTORY PERIOD

recovery time after orgasm among men

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73

Hypothalamus

part of the brain playing an important role for sexual functioning responsible in regulating endocrine activities

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Oxytocin

  • ” Love hormone” which is involved in our desire to maintain close relationship.

  • released during sexual intercourse when orgasm is achieved.

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Follicle – Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Responsible for ovulation in females where sexual activity become more frequent

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Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

  • crucial in regulating the testes in men in producing testosterone

  • in women, it stimulates ovaries in producing estrogen.

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vasopressin

Involved in male’s arousal phase and believed to increase male’s sexual activity

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Estrogen and progesterone

  • Women’s hormone that typically regulate motivation to engage in sexual behavior.

  • Estrogen increases sexual motivation; progesterone decreases sexual desire.

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Lust (erotic passion)

o Marked by physical attraction driven by testosterone and estrogen. o Couples are not expected to fall in love in a lasting way.

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Attraction (romantic passion)

o craving for partner’s presence where there is excitement and energy in fantasizing the things you could do together as couples

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Norepinephrine

responsible for extra surge of energy.

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Dopamine

– motivation and goal –directed behavior, feeling proud in having the person as to his admirable qualities

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Serotonin

cause obsessive thought and believed to be low with OCD.

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Attachment (commitment)

– stage where you want to get married and have children.

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a. CULTURE b. SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT c. POLITICAL SITUATIONS

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE GENDER DIFFERENCES ON SEXUAL DESIRE

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Amygdala

– integrative center for emotions, emotional behavior, and motivation.

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Nucleus accumbens

  • pleasure center of the brain

  • plays an important role in motivation and cognitive processing of aversion

  • it plays role in response to reward and reinforcing effects, translating emotional stimulus into behaviors.

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Sexual orientation

refers to a person’s general sexual disposition toward partners of the same sex, the opposite sex or both sexes.

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Heterosexuality

refers to the sexual preference for members of the opposite sex

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Homosexuality

refers to the sexual preference for members of the same sex.

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Bisexuality

refers to the sexual preference for members of both sexes.

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Asexuality

refers to indifference toward or lack of attraction to either sex

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Gender Identity

refers to one’s sense of being male or female

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Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Questioning, Queer, Intersex, Pansexual, Two– Spirit, Androgynous, and Asexual.

WHAT IS LGBTQQIP2SAA?

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Hermaphrodites

people born with genitalia that is neither clearly male nor female.

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Transgender

  • Describes a person who dresses, behaves, or presents in a way that is different from their gender norm.

  • Is the state of one’s gender identity or gender expression not matching one’s assigned sex.

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Intersex

describes a person, male or female, born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy that doesn't seem to fit the typical definitions of female or male

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Transsexual

A person who strongly identifies with the opposite sex and may seek to live as a member of this sex especially by undergoing surgery and hormone therapy to obtain necessary physical appearance.

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Transvestite

cross-dresser (people who dress in clothes of the opposite sex)

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Two – Spirit (2s)

A modern, pan-Indian, umbrella term used by some indigenous North Americans to describe certain people in their communities who fulfill a traditional third gender (or other gender-variant) ceremonial role in their cultures.

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