CLASS 40

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Bronze Age

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167 Terms

1

Bronze Age

3000Bc-1000Bc when myths took place

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Early Iron Age

1000-700 BC greeks in turmoil

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Archaic Period

700-480 BC greeks reinventing culture

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4

Classical Period

480-323 BC peak of greek culture

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5

Mythos

story- can't be confirmed

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6

Logos

an appeal based on logic or reason, can determine if this is true or not

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Mythology

meeting of mythos and logos (trying to apply logic to myth)

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8

Symposium

all male drinking party/conference where men would gather and tell stories (myths), joke, play songs, etc.

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9

Myth

Traditional tale with no author, but an essential line/series of events repeated from generation to generation

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10

Anthropomorphism

the tendency to attribute human characteristics to the gods such as emotional outbursts/feelings

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11

Reciprocity

you help me, I'll help you- core element of greek culture and use of the gods in myth

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12

Animal Sacrifice

connection to the gods through ritual slaughter- how we entice them into helping us

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13

Enthusiasmos

possession by a god- example is drinking wine and becoming possessed by Dionysus (related to ritual madness)

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14

Physical Allegory

coded message within a story where each character represents a concept or something different from their actual physical being

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15

Moral Allegory

ex. in the Judgement of Paris, Aphrodite= lust, Hera= political savvy, Athena= glory in war

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16

Historical Allegory

Euhemerus' interpretation of myth- myth is actually just a garbled and poorly translated version of actual historical events

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17

Oral Stage

Pleasure is centered around the mouth- eparation of child from mother's breast by FATHER causes tension

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Anal Stage

Pleasure is centered around the anus- again, child's pleasure is taken away by father

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19

Phallic Stage

Pleasure is centered around phallus- phallus represents possibility of power, and father becomes the main antagonist of child's life,

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Oedipal Complex

Competition between son and father for power because father is always taking away pleasure. Results in repressing thoughts that end up showing up in subconscious, often in the form of dreams or myths.

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21

Cosmology

explanation of where the cosmos come from

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22

Succession Crisis

First Gaia and Ouranos, then Kronos and Rhea, finally ended by Zeus swallowing Metis and birthing Athena

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First 3 entities of the universe

Chaos (void/space), Gaia (feminine energy/main substance of the universe), Tartarus (underworld), Eros (primal sexual power/attraction)

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Gaia's first son

Ouranos- results in constant copulating and formation of the 100-handers, Kyklopes, and titans

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The 12 Olympians

Zeus, Poseidon, Hera, Athena, Artemis, Apollo, Ares, Hermes, Dionysus, Aphrodite, (sometimes left out- Hades and Hephaestus)

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Decomposition

differentiating two parts of a being (i.e. good feminine energy - mothers- and bad feminine energy - seductress, or Odysseus and his men -the good and bad parts of a hero)

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First Dynasty (of myths)

Gaia and Ouranos- give rise to 100-handers, Kyklopes, and titans

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Second Dynasty

The Titans- lead by Kronos (who cut of Ouranos' testicles) and Rhea

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Third Dynasty

The Gods- Lead by Zeus and Hera (Zeus avoids succession crisis by swallowing his first wife, Metis)

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Role of women in myth

mothers represent dangerous women, while virginal daughters represent safe women

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31

Atlas

Titan who is punished by holding the world on his shoulders

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Prometheus

Titan who is punished (for messing around with Zeus and stealing fire, creating the first sacrifice) name translates to "before thought"

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Epimetheus

"After thought" brother of Prometheus who is tricked by Zeus into taking Pandora (first woman) as his wife

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Zeus

god of thunder/the sky, functions as the ruling god, in charge of Xenia, shown in art with little bowtie pasta (which represents thunder),

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Xenia

friendly relationships expected by strangers visiting another land

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Hera

queen of the gods, goddess of marriage and sometimes childbirth (but not the physical act of giving birth)

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attempted to give birth spontaneously (like Zeus did to Athena) and gave birth to Hephaestos (a malformed god)

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peacocks

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39

Poseidon

god of sea/water and earthquakes, depicted in vases/art with a beard, trident, and horses

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40

overall represents primal energy/power (the opposite of Athena, whose inventions often "tame" those forces)

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41

Jupiter and Io/Jupiter and Europa

allegory for child initiation- a young virginal girl away from the protection of her father goes to a liminal field/forest (sometimes washing laundry) and is raped by a god

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42

Rights of passage

1)separation, 2)liminality, 3)reintegration

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43

Apollo

twins of Leto and Zeus, born on island of Delos, responsible for childhood initiation

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Apollo- represented on cusp of manhood, around 18y/o, with long hair and now beard, associated with lyre, bow, and tripods- tricked by stream Telphousa to try building his sanctuary at Delphi/Parnassos and ends up fighting Python (where he gets epithet Apollo Pythios)

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45

Apollo's Sanctuary at Delphi

spring ran under temple, could have been source of steam that used to come from underground (where the Pythian priestess would get her divine inspiration when prophesying)

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also notable contained rock called the omphalos (bellybutton) which is believed to be the center of the universe/the rock that Kronos swallowed in Zeus' place

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Aphrodite

goddess of lust/desire, born from Ouranos' semen and the ocean, compared to Artemis (goddess of virgin liminality)

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represented by beautiful birds like geese

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sometimes represents marriage/ the transition from child to wife

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50

The Furies

created by Ouranos' blood spilling on the earth. Responsible for punishing those who spill family blood (like Orestes)

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51

Artemis

born on delos, daughter of Leto and Zeus, in charge of the liminal zone mainly for young girls, hunting/forests are attributed to her, early art depicts her as animalistic/with animal-like attributes (such as 20+ breasts, maybe to nurture the animals), associated with nymphs,

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52

Hubris

excessive pride or self-confidence that suggests you're better than the divine beings, often a cause for the gods to come after you/break reciprocity

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Anchises

father of Aeneas, seduced by aphrodite while she posed as a mortal woman

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54

Mediating figures

Aeneas (half god half mortal), Hermes (god of boundaries), Prometheus (takes fire from the gods and gives it to mortals)

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55

Aeneas

son of anchises and aphrodite, a mediating figure between gods/humans

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56

Loutrophoros

type of vase used in weddings to gather water

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57

Artemis' Sanctuary at Sparta

childhood initiation for boys, when they turned 18 had to run and grab cheese from a platform across the sanctuary while being whipped by spartan warriors

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58

Artemis' Sanctuary at Brauron

childhood initiation for girls, around the age of 10 they participated in the "bear dance" and women reenacted symposia (an all male event) in an area of liminality, often wore saffron dresses which were then dedicated to Artemis

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59

Hermes

God of boundaries, a mediator between mortals and the gods, attributes include winged helmet or boots, caduceus (staff of two snakes), epithet Hermes Psychopompus (leader of souls), associated with shepherds, mother is Maia

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60

Origin story- Maia gives birth to Hermes, he's a trouble maker/trickster from the start and tricks a turtle into becoming the first lyre, then steals Apollo's cows. Proves he is a god by rejecting mortal food (beef- this could also be an aition for the first sacrifice), and impresses Zeus with his Metis, ends up making amends with Hermes by gifting him the lyre.

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61

Aition

origin myth i.e. sacrifice by Prometheus or Hermes (this is why the bones are burned for the gods)

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62

Athena

Goddess of war strategy, crafts/culture, epithet Athena Polias (guardian of the city), associated with a helmet and aegis decorated with head of Medusa, often shown striding into battle, attributes include olives and owls,

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63

Arachnae

commits hubris by claiming she's better than Athena at weaving, Athena turns her into a spider

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64

Erechtheus

supposedly the first Athenian, born from Hephaestus' sperm which landed on Athena's thigh (so she remains virginal) but raised in Gaia's womb

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65

Mystery Cults

secret greek cult requiring initiation/rights of ritual passage, often involved long processions/parades, associated with developing a new understanding of death and mortality- most popular = Demeter and Dionysus

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66

Demeter

agricultural goddess of grain/harvest, likely had a mystery cult because of the importance of crops and ability to survive,

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67

Demeter's Sanctuary at Eleusis

Demeter orders the sanctuary be built, supposedly there's a spot that marks the exact entrance to the underworld, place of mystery cult's gatherings, had a well called the Kallichoron

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68

Dionysus

God of wine/ecstasy and ritual madness, also called Bacchus, attributes include satyrs and maenads, thyrsus (staff of vines), depicted with very long curly hair and beard, somewhere between masculine and feminine, son of Zeus and Semele- specifically birthed from Zeus' thigh

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69

Origin- birthed from Zeus' thigh, raised by Hermes among mortals, when he returns to his homeland of Thebes nobody believes he is a god, and so he punishes them all (story told in the Bacchae)

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70

Kantharos

a type of ancient Greek goblet with two large handles and a wide mouth, used during Symposia

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Ariadne

Daughter of Minos, assists and falls in love with Theseus but after he abandons her she becomes Dionysus' wife

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72

The Bacchae (by Euripides)

tragedy written by Euripedes which tells the story of Dionysus' return to Thebes and his reign of madness because nobody believes he is divine, culminates in the beheading of Pentheus (king of Thebes) by his own mother during a fit of ritual madness

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overall describes importance of death/mortality to Dionysus (therefore why he would have his own mystery cult)

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74

The human condition

humans have to eat and are mortal, gods don't need to eat and are immortal

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bacchae

followers of Dionysus, mainly maenads

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maenads

female followers of Dionysus, sometimes possessed in ritual madness, often depicted with a thyrsus or being chased by satyrs

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satyrs

Half-man, half-goat creatures associated with Dionysus, indulgence and sensuality

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78

Greek Heroes

greeks in myth usually half mortal half god/godlike (maybe a nymph or something), followed a general pattern

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79

5 essential ages of man

Golden age (Kronos' rule), Silver age (violent age of fools/10 year war), Bronze age (Zeus makes everything), Hero age (a better and more just mortal race exists), Iron age (decadent age of warfare, strife, bad manners, etc. end of mythological times)

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80

Hero worship

often super local, sometimes would be worshipped at a physical gravesite, only "universal" hero = Herakles, easier to pray to than the gods because they have divine connections but closer to human affairs and emanate some power, even after death

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81

Hero Initiation Pattern

Call to adventure (separation)

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Refusal to call

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Supernatural aid

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Crossing of the first threshold (liminality)

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Road of trials

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86

Meeting with the goddess/temptress

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Atonement with father

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Ultimate boon

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Return (reintegration)

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Apotheosis

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Apotheosis

raising to god status

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92

Epic of Gilgamesh

Written in Babylonian times, Gilgamesh may have been a historical figure

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93

Gilgamesh

hero of the epic, king of Uruk

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Enkidu

Gilgamesh's sidekick/best friend who he tamed by seducing Enkidu with a prostitute. Is killed (hero's encounter with death) by the Bull of Heaven

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Ishtar

Goddess of love- similar to Aphrodite, attempts to seduce Gilgamesh but he insults her so she releases the bull of heaven on Uruk

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96

Doublets

Character archetypes that show up multiple times/in multiple ways. Ex. Calypso and Circe

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97

Helen

Most beautiful woman in the world, is married to Menelaus but taken by Paris (of Troy)

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98

Menelaus

King of Sparta, husband of Helen, brother of Agamemnon

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99

Peleus and Thetis

Achilles' parents

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100

Achilles

Hero of the trojan war, destined to die young but earn lots of Kleos. Physical representation of Bie

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