Psych Exam Chapters 1-4

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Wilhelm Wundt developed the first full-fledged psychological laboratory in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany. He pioneered the technique of __________, in which trained observers reflected on and reported on their own mental experiences.

a: insight analysis

b: behaviorism

c: heuristics

d: introspection

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162 Terms

1

Wilhelm Wundt developed the first full-fledged psychological laboratory in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany. He pioneered the technique of __________, in which trained observers reflected on and reported on their own mental experiences.

a: insight analysis

b: behaviorism

c: heuristics

d: introspection

introspection

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2

British philosopher John Locke stood on the nurture side of the nature-nurture debate, comparing the mind of a newborn to a sheet of paper that had yet to be written on. Others later used which term to describe the same idea?

a: tabula rasa

b: free will

c: genetic inheritance

d: determinism

tabula rasa

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3

According to David Hume, an eighteenth-century Scottish philosopher, the more a claim contradicts what we already know, the more __________ must be the evidence for the claim.

a: persuasive

b: interesting

c: recent

d: unusual

persuasive

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4

Ways of thinking that appear to make intuitive sense but are actually traps that lead to mistaken conclusions are called __________.

a: confirmation biases

b: patternicity

c: ad hoc immunizing hypotheses

d: logical fallacies

logical fallacies

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5

In the 1950s and 1960s, many psychologists were disillusioned with behaviorism's neglect of the mental processes involved in different aspects of thinking. Arguing that thinking has a powerful effect on behavior, psychologists such as Jean Piaget began to develop the field of __________.

a:psychotherapy

b: structuralism

c: functionalism

d: cognitivism

cognitivism

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6

According to astronomer Carl Sagan, scientific skepticism includes (1) a willingness to keep an open mind to all claims, and (2) a willingness to __________.

a: accept claims only after researchers have subjected them to careful scientific tests

b: believe in the possibility of life existing throughout the universe

c: read and learn more about scientific subjects

d: change our minds when we encounter persuasive people

accept claims only after researchers have subjected them to careful scientific tests

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7

Dr. Goldschmidt is a psychologist. He works with individuals who have serious mental illness by giving them assessments, diagnosis, and treatment. Specifically, Dr. Goldschmidt is a

a: clinical psychologist

b: counseling psychologist

c: developmental psychologist

d: forensic psychologist

clinical psychologist

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8

Psychics who perform poorly in laboratory tests and then blame their poor performance on "bad vibes" from skeptical researchers are displaying which sign of pseudoscience?

a: overreliance on anecdotes

b: ad hoc immunizing hypotheses

c: lack of self-correction when contrary evidence is presented

d: insisting on evidence rather than proof

ad hoc immunizing hypotheses

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9

Twin and adoption studies addressing the nature-nurture debate are typically conducted by __________.

a: behavior geneticists

b: developmental psychologists

c: forensic psychologists

d: cognitive behaviorists

behavior geneticists

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10

One reason that intuition and common sense are not a good basis for scientific psychology is that we often do not notice __________.

a: universal traits across individuals

b: when we are in a dangerous situation

c: contradictions between our views

d: empirical findings in non-standard forms

contradictions between our views

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11

The phrase "don't confuse me with the facts" would best describe which self-deception trap?

a: individualism

b: naive realism

c: belief perseverance

d: confirmation bias

belief perseverance

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12

One of the great debates that has shaped the field of psychology is the question of whether people choose their behaviors or are obliged to act in certain ways by factors beyond their control. This is known as the __________ debate.

a: evolutionary psychology

b: free will-determinism

c: nature-nurture

d: good vs. evil

free will-determinism

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13

The theoretical framework of psychology known as structuralism had two major problems. One was that highly trained introspectionists often disagreed on subjective reports. The other was the discovery of __________.

a: systematic observation

b: imageless thought

c: natural selection

d: psychoanalysis

imageless thought

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14

An approach to psychology that relied heavily on dream interpretation, symbolism, unconscious motives, and the suppression of sexual and aggressive urges was developed by

a: Rene Descartes.

b: Sigmund Freud.

c: William James.

d :Jean Piaget.

Sigmund Freud

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15

The idea of placing a third brake light at the base of a car's back windshield and changing the color of fire engines from red to yellow are examples of __________.

a: critical multiplism

b: basic psychological research

c: psychoanalysis

d: applied psychological research

applied psychological research

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16

According to philosopher of science Sir Karl Popper, for a scientific claim to be meaningful, it must be falsifiable, which means __________.

a: it is inconsistent with any conceivable body of evidence

b: it predicts every possible outcome

c: it has been proven to be false

d: it can be tested to determine if it is false

it can be tested to determine if it is false

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17

Of the 3,500 or so self-help books published every year, what percentage are scientifically tested?

a: about 5 percent

b: up to 95 percent

c: 25 percent

d: 40 percent

about 5 percent

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18

In thinking of the multiple levels of analysis in psychology, the neurochemical level is considered to be __________ because this level is more closely tied to biological influences.

a: near the top of the ladder

b: on the same rung of the ladder as personal relationships

c: toward the lower end of the ladder

d: at the top of the ladder

toward the lower end of the ladder

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19

Because religious concepts cannot be tested scientifically, we should consider that

a: science and religion are nonoverlapping realms of knowledge.

b: religion is a pseudoscience.

c: moral values are unimportant because there is no data about them.

d: science is inadequate to explain the physical world.

science and religion are nonoverlapping realms of knowledge.

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20

Which term refers to the type of descriptive statistic that tells us where the scores tend to cluster in a set of measurements?

a: measure of range

b: central tendency

c: variability

d: standard deviation

central tendency

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21

When we perceive a reliable association between two events (although none exists), such as the presence of rainy weather and arthritis flare-ups, we are experiencing the phenomenon called

a: statistical anomaly.

b: ethical mirage.

c: invalid assumption.

d: illusory correlation.

illusory correlation

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22

To be sure that we are not fooled by popular media reports about psychology research, we should be on the lookout for

a: deliberate deception.

b: dumbing down.

c: sharpening and leveling.

d: the placebo effect.

sharpening and leveling

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23

You want to design a study that will be high in internal validity and will allow you to infer causation. Which research design should you use?

a: naturalistic observation

b: experimental design

c: case studies

d: correlational design

experimental design

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24

A central issue in considering medical and psychological research using nonhuman animals is balancing the advances gained through such experimentation against

a: possibly negative publicity focused on the research center.

b: the backlash of animal rights activists.

c: the costs in death and suffering they produce for the test subjects.

d: the exorbitant financial costs of animal research.

the costs in death and suffering they produce for the test subjects

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25

The process of soliciting feedback from qualified experts in a research area prior to publishing the results of a research study is called

a: peer review.

b: editorial correction.

c: vetting for publication.

d: professional critique.

peer review

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26

We say that a result has practical significance if it

a: is not statistically significant.

b: results from manipulating a single variable.

c: would occur by chance less than 5 times in 100.

d: makes a difference in the real world.

makes a difference in the real world

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27

When a politician makes the statement that the average tax return will be $5,000 for citizens of her state, we should be suspicious of her statistics. It would be more meaningful to report the __________ as a measure of central tendency.

a: refund of an individual "typical" taxpayer

b: highest and lowest refunds

c: average of refunds in all similar states

d: median or mode

median or mode

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28

Dr. Sardonicus is designing a case study in order to demonstrate that a particular psychological phenomenon actually happens. Case studies can be useful in providing this kind of demonstration, also known as

a: internal validity.

b: existence proof.

c: peer review.

d: external validity.

existence proof

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29

Arno did a study to demonstrate the relationship between age and intellect. To best represent his data, Arno should use a

a: distribution curve.

b: bar graph.

c: truncated line graph.

d: scatterplot.

scatterplot

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30

The APA Ethical Principles for Human Research indicate that psychologists must take reasonable steps to

a: ensure accurate data collection.

b: avoid harming participants.

c: use human subjects instead of nonhuman animals whenever possible.

d: use deceptive techniques.

avoid harming participants

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31

The story of how facilitated communication was debunked is a powerful illustration of the triumph of science over

a: affliction.

b: autism.

c: child abuse.

d: pseudoscience.

pseudoscience

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32

Dr. Rand conducts a study to determine the relationship between the hours of sleep a student gets the night before an exam and their actual performance on the exam. Dr. Rand graphs her data to make it easier to see the relationship between the two variables. She finds that the two variables are positively correlated. Her data is best represented by a graph with

a: a line that runs perpendicular to the bottom axis of the graph.

b: a line that slopes down from left to right.

c: a line that slopes up from left to right.

d: a line with no slope that runs parallel to the bottom axis of the graph.

a line that slopes up from left to right

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33

When evaluating a story about psychology research, we should generally place more confidence in a reputable science journal than a popular magazine. Which phrase encapsulates that idea?

a: You get what you pay for.

b: Consider the source.

c: Every cloud has a silver lining.

d: There are two sides to every story.

Consider the source

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34

Because carefully controlled studies generate more trustworthy results, the high internal validity of these studies can lead to

a: high external validity.

b: lack of falsifiability.

c: correlation of causation.

d: further studies.

high external validity

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35

The two kinds of statistics used by psychologists are descriptive statistics and __________ statistics.

a: inferential

b: variable

c: ethical

d: distributed

inferential

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36

Which group at every major American research college and university reviews all research carefully to protect participants against abuses?

a: institutional review board

b:investigative review bureau

c: institutional research bureau

d: investigative research board

institutional review board

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37

The type of thinking that allows us to operate on "autopilot" and make snap decisions is called

a: analogical.

b: intuitive.

c: System 2.

d: analytical.

intuitive

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38

Questionnaires fall into which category of measurement tools?

a: interrater reliability measures

b: validity measures

c: test-retest measures

d: self-report measures

self-report measures

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39

In a study to test the effects of a new memory technique, students are given one of two different memory techniques to use for their next exam. Their scores on the next exam are used to determine the effectiveness of the two techniques. In this study, what is the dependent variable?

a: the students' GPAs

b: the students' scores on the next exam

c: the two memory techniques

d: the first memory technique

the students' scores on the next exam

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40

If subjects' scores on a self-esteem scale are consistent over time, the scale has high __________ reliability.

a: interrater

b: test-retest

c: interlocutor

d: Meehl-determinant

test-retest

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41

From "neurons to neighborhoods" represents the multiple __________ found in the discipline of psychology.

a: phenomena

b: levels of analysis

c: neurochemicals

d: points of view

levels of analysis

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42

Dr. Frohardt is a psychology professor who has been asked to explain what all people will look at first when they view photographs of dangerous animals. Dr. Frohardt will find this task difficult because

a: of his confirmation bias.

b: this is a Wason selection task.

c: eye-tracking studies show differences between cultures when inspecting visual materials.

d: research on this subject has never been completed scientifically.

eye-tracking studies show differences between cultures when inspecting visual materials

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43

Which term describes the commonsense belief that we see the world as it really is?

a: naive realism

b: intuition

c: free will-determinism

d: healthy skepticism

naive realism

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44

Dr. Nadica believes that the new medication he is testing helps treat anxiety. As he runs his experiment testing the medication, every time he sees a participant stutter or show nervousness, he attributes it to their newness to the experiment and does not record it as an anxious behavior. Dr. Nadica is showing

a: belief perseverance.

b: confirmation bias.

c: metaphysical certitude.

d: bias protection.

confirmation bias

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45

The idea that we can dismiss scientific theories (such as Darwinian evolution) from serious consideration because a theory "is just an educated guess" is

a: partly true.

b: empirically obvious.

c: an important observation.

d: a misconception.

a misconception

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46

Some main warning signs of pseudoscientific claims include overreliance on anecdotes, exaggerated claims, absence of connectivity to other research, lack of peer review, and

a: use of scientific-sounding terms that make little sense.

b: the scientific method.

c: talk of evidence instead of proof.

d: replication by independent agencies.

use of scientific-sounding terms that make little sense.

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47

Ten-year-old Candace Newmaker died as a result of a pseudoscientific treatment called "rebirthing therapy." This is an example of pseudoscience causing

a: direct harm.

b: cultural indifference.

c: scientific regression.

d: indirect harm.

direct harm.

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48

The "third variable problem" is associated with which scientific thinking principle?

a: falsifiability

b: ruling out rival hypotheses

c: correlation is not causation

d: replicability

correlation is not causation

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49

Psychological researchers have become more aware of the importance of replicating research results. Part of this awareness is driven by the observation that the size of certain psychological findings appears to be shrinking over time. This phenomenon is known as the

a: correlation-causation fallacy.

b: reproducibility fallacy.

c: skepticism effect.

d: decline effect.

decline effect

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50

You meet a psychologist who tells you that she conducts research on children to determine how their cognitive processes differ as the child gets older. You recognize that this person is most likely a(n)

a: experimental psychologist.

b: developmental psychologist.

c: school psychologist.

d: biological psychologist.

developmental psychologist

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51

Evolutionary psychology has been criticized because

a: researchers prefer newer psychology theories.

b: it favors determinism over free will.

c: evolution is just a theory.

d: its predictions are difficult to falsify.

its predictions are difficult to falsify

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52

Nobel prize winner Daniel Kahneman refers to intuitive thinking as System 1. What type of thinking does Kahneman refer to as System 2?

a: impressionistic

b: analytical

c: speculative

d: descriptive

analytical

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53

The cases of facilitated communication and lobotomies demonstrate that good research design is important because intelligent, well-trained people __________.

a: can be swayed into believing that a treatment is effective when it is not

b: only seek confirmatory evidence of their beliefs

c: can be passively cruel in their pursuit of an outcome

d: usually do not conduct experiments

can be swayed into believing that a treatment is effective when it is not

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54

A mental shortcut or "rule of thumb" is referred to as a(n) __________ by psychologists.

a: heuristic

b: algorithm

c: intuition

d: deliberation

heuristic

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55

Analytical thinking is __________ compared to intuitive thinking.

a: slow

b: heuristic

c: painful

d: immediate

slow

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56

The only research designs that allow us the possibility of drawing cause-and-effect inferences are

a: correlational designs.

b: experimental designs.

c: naturalistic designs.

d: survey methods.

experimental designs

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57

The two ingredients that make a research study an experiment are 1) random assignment of participants to conditions, and 2) __________.

a:manipulation of a dependent variable

b: manipulation of an independent variable

c: external validity gained through real-world control

d: high inter-rater reliability

manipulation of an independent variable

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58

The APA Ethical Principles for Human Research state: "A contact [person] who can answer questions about the research and the participant's rights should be provided." This statement is most relevant in which of the following aspects of ethical research?

a: informed consent

b: deception and debriefing

c: expectation of privacy

d: protection from harm and discomfort

informed consent

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59

The authors accept the philosophical belief that science is __________; that is, neither good nor bad in itself.

a: ethically static

b: value-neutral

c: morally indefensible

d: conscience-free

value-neutral

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60

What shameful experiment was conducted over the course of 40 years to determine what would happen if syphilis was left to run its course in unsuspecting "subjects" (at a time when a cure for the disease was already available)?

a: the Syphilis study

b: the Milgram experiment

c: the Tuskegee study

d: the Vivisection experiment

the Tuskegee study

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61

Research involving nonhuman animals can generate strong, often negative, feelings among people. This is especially so when the research involves __________ procedures that cause physical harm to the nonhuman animal research participants.

a: invasive

b: exploratory

c: generative

d: unplanned

invasive

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62

Which of the following best summarizes the benefits of using nonhuman animals in research?

a: Very few nonhuman animals are used in medical and psychological research each year.

b: Rats experience depression the same way humans do.

c: Without nonhuman animal research, we'd know relatively little about the physiology of the brain.

d: Doing research on nonhuman animals is less complicated than doing research on humans.

Without nonhuman animal research, we'd know relatively little about the physiology of the brain

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63

Which term indicates applying mathematics to describe and analyze data?

a: information

b: research

c: science

d: statistics

statistics

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64

The following scores are obtained when observing reaction time after participants consume alcohol. Data set: 2.4, 3.2, 1.8, 2.9, 10.9, and 3.1. What is the technical term for the 10.9 measure, which lies outside the range of the other scores?

a: a variable

b: a skewer

c: the range

d: an outlier

an outlier

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65

Questions such as, "What is the average level of extraversion in this sample?" call for the use of which kind of statistics?

a: deterministic

b: inferential

c: influential

d: descriptive

descriptive

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66

Mark Twain referred to three kinds of untruths: "Lies, damned lies, and statistics," because

a: statisticians are generally unethical.

b: statistics sometimes can be used to mislead people.

c: inferential statistics are generally wrong.

d: descriptive statistics are generally wrong.

statistics sometimes can be used to mislead people.

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67

Dr. Ingo Larsen is testing the effectiveness of a new memory-enhancing study technique. He greets each participant at the door and escorts them into either the control group (that receives the old memory technique) or the experimental group (that receives the new memory technique). He then conducts the experiment and analyzes the results. This is all quite problematic, because of the potential presence of

a: rival hypotheses.

b: sharpening and leveling.

c: experimenter expectancy effects.

d: nocebo outcomes.

experimenter expectancy effects.

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68

One primary purpose of sending research articles to peer reviewers prior to publication is to

a: identify flaws in the research.

b: give everyone an equal chance to publish her or his research.

c: maintain leadership among experts in the field.

d: give those with opposing views equal time for rebuttal.

identify flaws in the research

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69

One important aspect of a research study that peer reviewers consider is whether the study considers alternate explanations. This is called

a: generating counterfactuals.

b: rendering external validity.

c: diminishing internal validity.

d: ruling out rival hypotheses.

ruling out rival hypotheses

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70

In the popular media (as opposed to scientific journals), research results can be presented in a misleading way because reporters have the tendency to exaggerate the gist or central message of the study. This is called

a: dumbing down.

b: sharpening.

c: oversimplifying.

d: leveling.

sharpening

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71

The media reports that new research shows cell phone usage is associated with tumor formation in the brain just above the ear. In the report, they describe the research findings and then publish interviews with three local cell phone distributors who voice concerns about how the study was conducted and who provided the primary funding for the study. This results in

a: the placebo effect.

b: pseudosymmetry.

c: leveling.

d: balanced reporting.

pseudosymmetry

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72

A falsified technique for "mapping" areas of the brain is called phrenology and was founded by

a: Franz Joseph Gall.

b: Paul Broca.

c: Hans Berger.

d: Wilbur Penfield.

Franz Joseph Gall

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73

PET scans are dependent on activated cells in the brain increasing their intake of ___________ when they are active.

a: hormones

b: neurotransmitters

c: amino acids

d: glucose

glucose

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74

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures changes in __________, which indirectly indicate neural activity.

a: oxytocin

b: blood oxygen levels

c: neurotransmitters

d: glucose-like molecules

blood oxygen levels

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75

As a researcher, if you needed to track brain changes over milliseconds (1/1000 of a second), the imaging technology you would most likely choose would be

a: magnetoencephalography (MEG).

b: transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

c: computed tomography (CT).

d: positron emission tomography (PET).

magnetoencephalography (MEG)

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76

Which of the following is responsible for transferring information from one side of the brain to the other, and when cut, prevents information from the visual field on one side from reaching the visual cortex on the other side?

a: synaptic cleft

b: corpus callosum

c: caudate nucleus

d: myelin sheath

corpus callosum

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77

Which of the following is the portion of a neuron that sends a signal to other neurons?

a: axon

b: synaptic vesicle

c: node

d: dendrite

axon

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78

When a neuron is neither being stimulated nor inhibited, the neuron is described as having a(n)

a: action potential.

b: potency state.

c: resting potential.

d :potential difference.

resting potential

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79

Endorphins are a type of __________, short strings of amino acids that are narrowly targeted to perform a specific job. For instance, endorphins specialize in reducing pain.

a: dopamine

b: monoamine

c: anandamide

d: neuropeptide

neuropeptide

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80

When you learn something new, a new pathway is actually built and reinforced in the brain. This change in the brain is called

a: reprogramming.

b: a refractory period.

c: degeneration.

d: plasticity.

plasticity

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81

Alcohol and antianxiety drugs both increase __________ activity, which is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter.

a: gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

b: acetylcholine

c: norepinephrine

d: glutamate

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

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82

Which part of the brain is used for hearing, understanding language, and storing memories, and is separated from the rest of the cortex by the lateral fissure?

a: frontal lobe

b: parietal lobe

c: temporal lobe

d: occipital lobe

temporal lobe

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83

Which part of the peripheral nervous system controls involuntary actions of internal organs and glands?

a: autonomic nervous system

b: central nervous system

c: somatic nervous system

d: sympathetic nervous system

autonomic nervous system

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84

What is the name for the part of the brain stem connecting the cortex to the cerebellum?

a: hindbrain

b: interneuron

c: striatum

d: pons

pons

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85

The __________ is a relay station for the senses.

a: amygdala

b: thalamus

c: hypothalamus

d: medulla

thalamus

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86

Which of the following responses is created by the sympathetic nervous system, which is active during the fight-or-flight response?

a: Pupils constrict.

b: Lungs constrict bronchi.

c: Stomach slows digestion.

d: Heart rate slows.

Stomach slows digestion

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87

The endocrine system is __________ the neurochemical system of the brain.

a: simpler than

b: slower than

c: about the same speed as

d: faster than

slower than

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88

Which hormone triggers the opening of bronchioles in the lungs and the breakdown of glycogen into glucose?

a: adrenaline

b: oxytocin

c: nonhuman primates only

d: cortisol

adrenaline

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89

The hormone testosterone is found in

a: nonhuman primates only.

b: males only.

c: females only.

d: males and females.

males and females

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90

Which gland was once thought of as the "master gland" because it controls the other glands in the body?

a: endocrinal

b: adrenal

c: hypothalamus

d: pituitary

pituitary

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91

The pituitary hormone oxytocin has been called the "love molecule" because

a: it makes people more welcoming to outsiders.

b: the molecule is heart-shaped.

c: it makes male prairie voles seek new mates.

d: it plays roles in maternal and romantic love.

it plays roles in maternal and romantic love

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92

Two brown-eyed parents have a blue-eyed child. How is this possible?

a: Only one parent must give one recessive gene for blue eyes to occur in the child.

b: Both parents carry only dominant genes for blue eyes.

c: Both parents carry a recessive gene for blue eyes.

d: Both parents carry only dominant genes for brown eyes.

Both parents carry a recessive gene for blue eyes

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93

The basic difference between being biologically male or female comes down to chromosomes. Females have an XX pair and males have

a: a YY pair.

b: an XY pair.

c: a YZ pair.

d: two Y's and a Z.

an XY pair

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94

What practice of adoption agencies can make adoption studies problematic for researchers interested in disentangling genetic and environmental contributions to human behavior?

a: open adoption

b: selective placement

c: sealed records

d: environmental grooming

selective placement

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95

The extent to which genes contribute to differences in a trait among a group of individuals is known as

a: g-force.

b: sociability.

c: the genetic index.

d: heritability.

heritability

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96

What is the crucial drawback in using family studies to try to determine the risk of a genetic disorder among relatives sharing a household?

a: Sharing both an environment and genetic background can make nature hard to distinguish from nurture.

b: People with the same genetic background are unlikely to share an environment.

c: Relatives will be less likely to tell the truth to researchers in order to look better compared to other family members.

d: Family studies are an unnecessary intrusion as the same information can be obtained from strangers sharing an environment, such as those living in an apartment building.

Sharing both an environment and genetic background can make nature hard to distinguish from nurture.

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97

Genes are composed of __________ that is/are arranged on __________.

a: amino acids; proteins

b: neurotransmitters; neurons

c: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA); chromosomes

d: hormones; glands

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA); chromosomes

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98

Sensory information comes into which part of the two-way nervous system "superhighway"?

a: somatic nervous system

b: autonomic nervous system

c: peripheral nervous system

d: central nervous system

central nervous system

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99

In evolutionary terms, "fitness" means that an organism __________ than other organisms in its environment.

a: has a better chance of passing on its genes

b: is bigger and stronger

c: has greater cardiovascular capacity

d: is more deserving of survival

has a better chance of passing on its genes

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100

What event affecting the brain can cause bizarre behavioral outcomes, such as the extreme example of one hand refusing to cooperate with the other, as in the case of the man whose left hand turned off the television and hit his family members?

a: multiple sclerosis

b: split-brain surgery

c: epileptic seizure

d: stroke

split-brain surgery

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