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What were the traditional features of government in East Asia (China) in the 13th Century?

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What were the traditional features of government in East Asia (China) in the 13th Century?

song dynasty which used methods like confucianism, bureaucracy, mandate of heaven, and civil service exam to justify rule

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Describe the political organization of Japan in the 13th Century.

decentralized with warlords controlling parts of the land and economy, often led to conflicts between families

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What was the cultural relationship between China and the rest of East Asia in the 13th Century?*

chinese cultural traditions like filial piety continued and dominated other states (Japan & Korea)

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What was Confucianism and Filial Piety?

philosophy that provides structure to a society, older generations are respected by younger generations

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What were the different branches of Buddhism, where did it originate, and where did they spread?*

originated in india as an alternative to hinduism, several branches including theravada & mahayana, spread to east & southeast asia

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Describe the economy of Song China.

a largely agrarian society supported by peasant labor & champa rice, grand canal expanded commerce, led to production of highly sought out goods and urbanization of the region

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How did innovations change East Asia in the 13th Century?*

champa rice, grand canal, porcelain, gunpowder, etc. lead to increased production, long distance trade, and innovations in other areas

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Describe Dar al-Islam in the time c. 1200-1450.

dar al-islam refers to all territory under the rule of islam, originated in the arabian peninsula, the golden age was ushered by muhammad's death, largely tolerant to other religions but heavily dominated by islam

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Describe the Abbasid Caliphate.

controlled by the abbasid family with capital in baghdad, expansion through military conquests and conversion to islam (spain, africa, southeast asia, ect.)

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What was the political (government) organization of Dar al-Islam in the late 13th Century?*

fragmentation and emergence of new islamic states such as mamluks & seljuks

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How and why did Islam's influence spread so widely and rapidly?

small part in military conquests, primarily spread to merchants & missionaries along long-distance trade routes

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Why did Dar al-Islam become a center of knowledge and culture during its 'Golden Age' (8th-13th centuries)?

muslim states encouraged intellectual innovations through religious tolerance, allowed scholars from multiple cultures to produce significant advancements in several fields

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How did the Muslim world facilitiate the spread knowledge and culture during its Golden Age (8th-13th centuries)?*

long distance trade, missionary work, location, etc. allowed the muslim world to come collectors & distributors of past or current learning (house of wisdom, greek/roman philosophy)

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What were the consequences of the Muslim world being the main center of knowledge during its golden age (8th-13th centuries)?

reawakening of the renaissance, rediscovery of greek/roman works, north africa developed new centers of learning, indian ocean led to the spread of maritime navigational technology

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Describe the traditional cultural characteristics in South Asia (present day India) prior to the arrival of Islam.

hinduism focused on reincarnation and instituted a strict caste system, the diversity of india would allow for emergence of new belief systems

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Describe the changes to culture in South Asia (present day India) after with the arrival of Islam.*

the values islam placed on equality overpowered and influenced many lower castes to change religion, syncretic belief systems like sufism emerged

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Describe the features of culture in Southeast Asia from 1200-1450.

cross cultural interactions due to trade across indian ocean, contribution to the spread of belief systems (hinduism), raja = kings, sanskrit and indian temples were adopted

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Describe the governments in South Asia from c. 1200-1450.

vijayanagara = hinduism & delhi sultanate = islam (tolerance of religion), religion justified rule

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Describe the features of government in Southeast Asia from c. 1200-1450.*

government used religion to justify rule, hinduism was used at first until islam & buddhism entered, khmer, majapahit, etc.

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Describe the new states in the Americas c. 1200-1450*

states expanded empires via military conquest, religion, and centralized economic systems to dominate smaller states, new states (inca, mesa verde, etc)

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Describe the forced labor systems used by states in the Americas from c. 1200-1450.

incas conquered people for labor on projects (mita system) & aztecs used tributary systems, centralized economic planning

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Describe the new states in Africa c. 1200-1450*

islam & long distance trade brought rise to states (great zimbabwe & mali), highly developed urban centers will develop in eastern africa

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Describe some of the cultural characteristics of East Africa c. 1200-1450.

religion = islam via long distance trade, muslim merchants brought language, ideas, & products (ivory/gold), syncretism or bantu language with arabic

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Describe the dominant political system in Europe c. 1200-1450.

decentralized via feudalism because of weak monarchies and strong nobility, land = power which led to exchangment and usage from lower classes

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Describe the dominant economic system of Europe c. 1200-1450.

manorialism (division of land), self sufficient, serfs provided labor and lords provided protection

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Describe the dominant social system of Europe c. 1200-1450.

three classes (clergy, warrior, worker), inequality with little social mobility, serfs/serfdom (tied to the land)

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Describe the religious breakdown of Europe c. 1200-1450.

dominated by 2 types (roman catholicism w/pope & eastern orthodox w/patriarch), muslims, pockets of judaism

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Describe the Silk Roads.

network of eurasian trade routes, connected india/central asia/east africa/ europe, facilitated economic/cultural/political/religious interactions

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What was the demographic impact of the Silk Roads?*

long distance trade led to an increased and expansive range of trade, led to growth of powerful new trading cities, kashgar & samarkand

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How did innovation encourage trade along the The Silk Roads?*

innovations in already existing transportation/commercial methods, caravanserai, bills of exchange, paper money

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What products were traded along the Silk Road c.1200-1450?

luxury goods like porcelain, silk, spices traded from asia, iran, europe, india, etc.

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What were the impacts of Silk Road trade c. 1250-1400?

increased & expanded trade/trade routes, cross cultural exchange for culture and religion, knowledge/innovations like gunpowder spread from china

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(HUB DATE) 1258 CE

mongols sack baghdad, end of golden age, song dynasty, height of mongols, long distance trading, cross cultural exchange

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How did the Mongols rise and come to dominate much of Asia?

genghis khan united the various mongol tribes, skilled archers and horse riders (speed, adaptation, destructive), used conquered to further develop their empire, conquered iran, russia, china, middle east, etc.

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What was the Pax Mongolica and what were its economic impacts?*

mongol peace, used for the trade routes to make it safe, political and diplomatic ties became strong, renewed use of silk roads, cross cultural exchange likes number systems and medical knowledge

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What were the cultural impacts of the Mongol conquests?*

temujin divided empire to four khanates, assimilated many aspects of the culture, introduction of new traditions likes paper innovations and uyghur script

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How did innovation encourage trade along the Indian Ocean Trade Network?*

increased demand of consumer goods via innovations like the compass and astrolabe

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What environmental factors played a role in the Indian Ocean Exchange?

environmental knowledge about monsoons, either helped or stopped voyages

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What were the political effects of the Indian Ocean Exchange?*

growth of states (swahili & malacca)

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How did the Indian Ocean Exchange impact the development of Diasporic communities?*

communities were set up where introductions to cultural traditions were facilitated (arab & persian)

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Who was Zheng He and what was his significance?

chinese admiral who led explorations to establish tributary systems, transfers of culture and technology, demonstrated china's military, political, and economy

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(HUB DATE) 1405-1433CE

zheng he voyages, heightened connectivity across afro eurasia from long distance trading, cultural syncretism and diffusion of innovations, china's power and then its isolation

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How did innovation encourage trade along the Trans- Saharan Network?*

encouraged long distance trading with camels and its innovation, saddles which allowed more goods to be transported

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What was the cultural and economic impact of the Trans-Saharan Trade Network?

spread of islam and exchange of goods, slaves/gold/ivory for clothes/horses/salt

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What was the political impact of the Trans-Saharan Trade Network?*

increased trade led to wealth and states expanded (mail & ghana), facilitated communication & trade

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(HUB DATE) 1324 CE

mansa musa's pilgrimage, represents the wealth and power of the new states along the trade routes, islam spreads along with learning and knowledge

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Describe the effects on cultural traditions from the 'Connectivity' of the era c. 1200-1450.*

cross cultural interactions led to syncretism in literature, art, and traditions (buddhism/islam/hinduism)

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Describe the effects on scientific and technological innovations from the 'Connectivity' of the era c. 1200-1450.*

diffusion of scientific/technological innovations, gunpowder, algebra, greek/roman philosophy

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Describe the impact of 'travelers' on the 'Connectivity' of the era c. 1200-1450.*

marco polo & ibn battuta, writing about travels made areas popular and worthy of interest in products/knowledge/lifestyles

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Who was Ibn Battuta and why was he significant?

islamic scholar who traveled and wrote about his accounts, published and shed light on the different aspects of the social/political/cultural history of the muslim world

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Describe the impact on the environment from the 'Connectivity' of the era c. 1200-1450.*

spread of crops & diseases, bubonic plague/terrace farming in china

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(HUB DATE) 1346 - 1351 CE

bubonic plague across afro eurasia, beginning of connectivity, fostered diffusion of knowledge/diseases/crops/etc

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How did Land-Based empires expand their territory in the time c. 1450-1750?

use of gunpowder, cannons, armed trade, etc. to establish large empires in both hemispheres

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Describe the rise and expansion of the Ottoman Empire.

the fall of the mongol khannate on the arabian peninsula allowed the ottoman royal family to lead turkic nomads to central asia, dominated the muslim world with gunpowder, expanded to the balkans and north africa, conflict with the safavid

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(HUB Date) 1453 CE

ottomans seize constantinople, beginning of the land based empires using artillery to expand and maintain control, ottomans push into europe with muslim technology (cuts off access to trad routes and leads europe to look elsewhere)

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Describe the rise and expansion of the Mughal Empire.

mughal established in india after the defeat of the delhi sultanate, were sunni, akbar united much of the indian subcontinent with religious tolerance, islamic art and architecture flourished

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Describe the rise and expansion of the Russian Empire.

broke free of the mongol empire, princes of moscow eliminated authority from local princes, ivan the terrible centralized authority and named himself czar, expand eastward into the region of siberia

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Describe the rise and expansion of the Safavid Empire.

safavid family consolidated power over iran, established the shi'a sect of islam as the official religion of their empire, modernized army and long distance trading, conflicts with ottomans and surrounded on all sides led to little to no expansion

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Describe the rise and expansion of the Manchu Empire (Qing Dynasty).

manchus from the north invaded and claimed the mandate of heaven, chinese population saw the manchu rule as foreign, followed the previous dynasty's example, confucianism, arts and expansion

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What methods did rulers of Land-Based Empires use to administer (run) their government in the time c. 1450-1750?*

recruitment and use of bureaucratic elite and development of military professionals, result. of centralization of power and control over population/resources, ottoman devshirme

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What methods did rulers of Land-Based empires use to legitimize and justify their power in the time c. 1450-1750?*

religion, art, and architecture (divine rights of kings, palace of versailles, & taj mahal)

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What methods did rulers of Land-Based empires use to raise money to pay for their expansion in the time c. 1450-1750?*

tax farming and tribute collection to generate revenue and continue state power and expansion, mughal's zamindars

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Describe the Renaissance.

rebirth of greek-roman culture, reflected the spirit of individualism and encouraged secularism, largely due to interconnectivity from pax mongolica and dar al-islam

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Describe the Protestant Reformation and its consequences.

martin luther's 95 theses argued against the RCC of selling indulgences and corruption amongst the clergy, reformation would spread across europe and creates a religious schism, political leaders use this reform as a means to centralize and further authority

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(HUB Date) 1618-1648

ottoman-safavid and thirty years war, represents ongoing wars between religions (schisms), masks a political struggle of power and control

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How and why did Sikhism develop in South Asia (modern-day India) in the time c. 1450-1750?

syncretism between hinduism and islam, society was a mix of hindus and muslims

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What were the sources/origins of the innovations that made Europe's Age of Exploration possible?

knowledge, science, and technology from middle east and china facilitated european developments and innovation

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What were some of the maritime technologies that helped usher in Europe's Age of Exploration?*

production of new tools, ships, and improved understanding of wind/currents (caravel, magnetic compass, star charts, etc)

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Describe Portugal's role in Maritime Exploration c. 1450-1750.

due to ottoman empire denying access to goods, portugal funded development of navigational technology to establish a trading post empire,

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Describe Spain's role in Maritime Exploration c. 1450-1750.

spanish sponsored the voyages of columbus and other voyages, established colonies in the americas, led to a dramatic increase of european interest in transoceanic travel and trade

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(HUB Date) 1492 CE

christopher columbus sailed the ocean blue, represents the beginning of maritime empires, establish new trade routes, slow rise of european power

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Describe the English and French role in Maritime Exploration c. 1450-1750

crossings to find an alternative sailing routes for asia were sponsored by the english and french, eventually established colonies in america, french focused on fur

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Describe the Columbian Exchange.

exchange between europe and america, led to the trade of diseases (one sided and devastation of population), fauna, and flora

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Describe the role of crops of the Americas played within the Columbian Exchange.

many foods from the americas became a staple in various part of the eastern hemisphere, led to higher life expectancy and growth in population (yams & potatoes)

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Describe the role that crops & animals of Afro-Eurasia played within the Columbian Exchange.

majority of crops (rice & sugarcane) were brought to colonise and profit off of the land, majority of the animals (horses & cattle) were brought to use for colonization and help on farms

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Describe the migration of humans as part of the Columbian Exchange.

migration occurred through two fronts, forced = african slaves (work on plantations) & willingly = european (wealth and power)

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Describe the role that disease played within the Columbian Exchange.

unintentional transfers of diseases through mosquitoes & rats devastated the population of native americans (smallpox)

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How did Spain establish and extend its influence over its colonies in the Americas (Latin America)?*

used lethal and horrific methods, conquistadors will wage war against indigenous populations (francisco pizarro), coerced labor systems to extract natural resources

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(HUB Date) 1532 CE

fall of inca empire to pizarro, represents the domination from maritime empires, spain will take control of america which is one of the largest silver deposits, east asia will commence isolation

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Describe the economies established in the Americas by Maritime Empires in the time c. 1450-1750.*

newly developed economies in the americas depended on agriculture, forced labor systems for extraction of natural resources (silver, hacienda/encomienda)

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How did the establishment of Maritime Empires and continued growth of long-distance trade impact Africa in the time c. 1450-1750?

fostered the growth of states in africa, kingdom of kongo, participation in trade networks led to an increased influence

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How did East Asian states react to the increased presence of European maritime powers in the region c. 1450-1750?

attempts from european powers to establish commercial relationships led to arrival of missionaries, conversion of culture and religion, isolationism and restrictions on interactions with outsiders

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What was the status of the Indian Ocean Trade Network in the time c. 1450-1750?*

disruption and restructuring from european powers portuguese), continued to flourish from asian merchants (javanese)

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Describe the African diaspora as a result of the Atlantic Slave Trade.

forced migration of millions led to a spread of african culture, languages/traditions/beliefs emerged (voudon)

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