Chapter 6 APUSH Vocab

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Society of the Cincinnati


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Society of the Cincinnati

The society of Continental Army Officers who formed an exclusive hereditary order; ridiculed by Americas in the 1800s because servitude was unknown.

Newburgh Conspiracy

A plot hatched in 1783 near the end of the American Revolutionary War resulting from the fact that many of the officers and men of the Continental Army had not received pay for many years. The new nation under the Articles of Confederation was in a financial crisis. Through this, which was engineered by Alexander Hamilton and Robert Morris, the army, whose pay was overdue, threatened to force the states into surrendering more power to the national government.

Alexander Hamilton

This man emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers. Later, as secretary of treasury under Washington, he spearheaded the government's Federalist initiatives, most notably through the creation of the Bank of the United States.

George Washington

He established many of the presidential traditions, including limiting a president's tenure to two terms. He was against political parties and strove for political balance in government by appointing political adversaries to government positions.

James Madison

The author of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, He was also the father of the Federalist party and the fourth President of the United States. He was President during the war of 1812 and was also Vice-President under Jefferson. He was a great statesman but was not a strong president.

Virginia Plan

Representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress should be based on population, "large state plan".

New Jersey Plan

Equal representation in a unicameral Congress by states, regardless of size and population, "small state plan".

Great Compromise

The agreement by which Congress would have two houses, the Senate (where each state gets equal representation-two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation is based on population).


During the period from 1976 to 1824, this party was lead by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. They wanted a stronger national government that would rectify the pitfalls of the Articles of Confederation. Their supporters held a stronghold in New England and the Middle Colonies, as well as urban centers of commerce and manufacturing.


They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party.

Federalist Papers

The papers were a collection of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison explaining how the new government/constitution would work. Their purpose was to convince the New York state legislature to ratify the constitution, which it did.

Bill of Rights

This document, which consist of the first ten Constitutional Amendments, guarantee certain rights to America citizens in all circumstances. This bill was put forth by Anti-Federalists, who feared forms of government intrusion on personal liberties.

Judiciary Act of 1789

In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.

1st National Bank

1791 to 1811; Hamilton modeled it after Bank of England; Paid dividends & interest to government, which was the source of revenue; Provided Flexible Currency; Created adequate credit for business; Generated revenue for national government; Hamilton's supporters, members of the Federalist Party, Mercactile, eastern groups, & Friends of string central government; Died when Republicans gained political power & by 1811 controlled Washington; Madison's government did not renew its charter; Federalists claimed it was "necessary & proper" under the "elastic clause" in Constitution; Republicans thought Bank violated the Constitution; Great struggle between loose or strict translation of Constitution

Whiskey Rebellion

In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.

Citizen Genet

French ambassador during the french revolution ignored the neutrality proclamation. Significance: Lead to affairs between British and America because he and a group of men were taking over British ships for the french.

Jay's Treaty

Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley.

Pinckney's Treaty

Treaty negotiated by Thomas Pinckney in which Spain recognized the right of Americans to navigate the Mississippi and use the New Orleans port. Spain also agreed to fix the northern boundary of Florida along the 31st parallel and prevent Indians from launching raids across the border into the U.S.

Election 1796

The first real contested presidential election. Federalists support John Adams, Republicans support Thomas Jefferson. Adams wins, Jefferson becomes Vice President.

XYZ affair

A diplomatic incident when made public in 1798, nearly involved the United States and France in war. The incident ended the Franco-American treaty and resulted in the undeclared war between the two countries and prompted the build up of the U.S. Navy.

Alien Act

Said that a person arriving in the United States had to wait 14 years to become a citizen.

Sedition Act

Made it a crime for anyone to write or print articles criticizing the government.

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.

Election of 1800

(Revolution of 1800) Jefferson and Burr tied in the number of electoral votes and then Hamilton (who despised Burr) supported Jefferson, which eventually won him the election. This was significant becuase political power was shifted between parties, peacefully. Also, it caused further conflict between Burr and Hamilton