AP Psychology Vocabulary - Chapter 1

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Behaviorism

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53 Terms

1

Behaviorism

School of psychology that studies only observable and measurable behavior

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2

Classical Conditioning

The type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited by a different, formerly neutral, stimulus

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3

Ego

Freud’s term for the part of the personality that mediates between environmental demands (reality), conscience (superego), and instinctual needs (Id); now often used as a synonym for “self”

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4

Functionalism

School of psychology that emphasizes mental life and behavior that is concerned with how an organism uses perceptual abilities to function in its environment

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5

Hierarchy of Needs

A theory of motivation advanced by Maslow holding that higher order motives involving social and personal growth only emerge after lower motives related to survival have been met

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6

Id

In Freud’s theory of personality, the collection of unconscious urges and drives that continually seek expression

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7

Latent

Hidden

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8

Natural Selection

The mechanism proposed by Darwin in his theory of evolution, which states that organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive, transmitting their genetic characteristics to succeeding generations, whereas organisms with less adaptive characteristics tend to vanish from the earth

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9

Operant Conditioning

The type of learning in which behaviors are emitted to earn rewards or punishments

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10

Psychology

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes

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11

Structuralism

School of psychology that stresses the basic units of experience and the combinations in which they occur

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12

Superego

According to Freud, the social and parental standards the individual has internalized; the conscience and ego ideal

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13

Unconscious

In Freud’s theory, all the ideas, thoughts, and feelings of which we are not and normally cannot become aware of

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14

Introspection

The process of examining and measuring one’s own thoughts and mental activities

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15

Gestalt Psychology

Early perspective in psychology focusing on perception and sensation, particularly the perception of patterns and whole figures

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16

Psychodynamic Perspective

Modern version of psychoanalysis, that is more focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person’s behavior than sexual motivation

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17

Humanistic Perspective

Perspective that emphasizes human potential and the idea that people have the freedom to choose their own destiny

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18

Biological Perspective

Perspective that attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system

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19

Cognitive Perspective

Modern perspective that focuses on memory, intelligence, perceptions, problem-solving, and learning

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20

Sociocultural Perspective

Perspective that focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture

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21

Evolutionary Perspective

Perspective that focuses on the biological basis of universal mental characteristics that all humans share

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22

Psychiatrist

A medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders

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23

Psychologist

A professional with an academic degree and specialized training in one or more areas of psychology

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24

Psychoanalyst

Either a psychiatrist or a psychologist who has special training in the theories of Sigmund Freud and his method of psychoanalysis

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25

Dualism

View that thoughts and feelings (the mind) are distinct from the world of real objects and our bodies

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26

Positive Psychology

An emerging field of psychology that focuses on positive experiences, including subjective well-being, self-determination, the relationship between positive emotions and physical health, and the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish

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27

Gender

The psychological and social meanings attached to being biologically male or female

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28

Feminist Theory

These theories offer a wide variety of views on the social rules of women and men, the problems and rewards of those roles, and prescriptions for changing those rules

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29

Sexual Orientation

Refers to the direction of one’s sexual interest towards members of the same sex, the other sex, or both sexes

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30

Race

A subpopulation of a species, defined according to an identifiable characteristic (that is, geographic location, skin color, hair texture, genes, facial features, and so forth)

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31

Ethnicity

A common cultural heritage—including religion, language, or ancestry—that is shared by a group of individuals

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32

Culture

The tangible goods and values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs that are passed from one generation to another

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33

Empiricism

An approach to understanding subjects, including human behavior, by examining data rather than using intuition or reason alone

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34

Nature vs. Nurture Debate

Debate between the influence of nature (genetics) versus nurture (environment)

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35

Operant Conditioning Chamber

Known as a skinner box---where animals are trained to complete a voluntary behavior, once the behavior is completed they would receive a reward

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36

Radical Behaviorism

Idea that behavior should be studied objectively using the scientific method and only what can be seen or observed is measurable

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37

Applied Research

Research conducted to answer real world problems

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38

Basic Research

Research conducted for the sake of gaining scientific knowledge

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39

Biopsychosocial Perspective

Perspective that combines three major facets of an perspective individual—biology, psychology, and social interactions—in trying to help explain a person either medically or psychologically

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40

Psychiatric Social Worker

A social worker with some training in therapy methods who focuses on environmental conditions that can have an impact on mental disorders, such as poverty, overcrowding, stress, and drug abuse

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41

Psychoanalysis

An insight therapy based on the theory of Freud, emphasizing the revealing of unconscious conflicts; Freud’s term for both the theory of personality and the therapy based on it

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42

Clinical Psychologist

Work with individuals who may be suffering from psychological disorders

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43

Counseling Psychologist

Work with individuals who are going through a difficult time in their lives but are unlikely to have a mental illness; help clients with adjustment problems

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44

Industrial/Organizational Psychologist

Work in businesses to increase productivity, worker morale, devise hiring plans, create worker training programs, etc.

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45

School Psychologist

Work to evaluate students for special programs, involved in IQ testing, creating student plans, and serve as liaisons between students, parents, and teachers

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46

Biological Psychologist

Investigate how the structures in one’s brain or nervous system influence behavior

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47

Cognitive Psychologist

Investigate how people’s thinking and perceptions of situations influence their behavior

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48

Developmental Psychologist

Study how people change and develop over their life span

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49

Educational Psychologist

Research how people learn and remember information, devise educational curriculums and tests

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50

Experimental Psychologist

Work in labs doing research; form the largest category of basic psychologists

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51

Psychometric Psychologist

Interpret personality or intelligence tests or analyze data produced by basic psychologists to determine their findings

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52

Personality Psychologist

Provide personality inventories which are then analyzed and assessed ; help determine why certain personality characteristics seem to make getting along difficult for certain individuals or hold them back from reaching their potential

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53

Social Psychologist

Focus on examining the influence of family, culture, religion, and peer groups on behavior

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