cells as the basis of life

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similarites - prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

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1

similarites - prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

  • both contain DNA

  • both are living

  • both have features such as cytoplasm and plasma membrane

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2

prokaryotic cells

  • bacteria and archea

  • unicellular

  • small

  • do not have membrane around organelles

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3

eukaryotic cells

  • animals, plants, fungi and protist cells

  • can be multicellular or unicellular

  • thought to have come about due to an endosymbiotic relationship with prokaryotic cells

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4

technologies used to determine a cells’ structure and function

light microscope and election microscope - scanning and transmission

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5

magnification

how much larger the object appears

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resolution

the ability to distinguish between nearby structures

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7

features of a light microscope

  • magnification up to 2000x

  • low resolution of below 0.2 micrometres

  • little sample prep necessary - staining

  • easy to use

  • can image live cells

  • inexpensive

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8

types of electron microscopes

transmission and scanning

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9

features of electron microscopes

  • magnification approx 1 million x

  • high resolution of below 0.2 nanometres

  • labourious preparation

  • specialised training required

  • can only be used to image non living samples

  • expensive to purchase and run - special room

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10

what can be seen by light microscopes

  • cell wall

  • cell membrane

  • nucleas

  • nucleolus

  • chloroplast

  • plant vacuole

  • cytoplasm

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11

what can be seen by electron microscope

  • cell wall structure

  • cell membrane ultrastructure

  • nuclear membrane ultrastructure

  • nucleolus easily seen

  • chloroplast ultrastructure

  • animal vacuole

  • mitochondria

  • ribosomes

  • lysosomes

  • centrosome

  • cytoskeleton

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12

vacuole in plants

single, large, fluid filled sac which takes up most of the space in a plant cell. strengthens the cell and provides rigidity

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vacuole in animals

not as big as plants, used to store water, food or enzymes

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14

nucleus

place where eukaryotic cells carry their chromosomal DNA

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15

mitochondria

site of cellular respiration, number depends on how much energy the cell requires (eg muscle cells have a lot)

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chloroplasts

site of photosynthesis, contains chlorophyll which does the photosynthesising.

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golgi bodies

where proteins are modified, stored then transported elsewhere where they will be used.

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Rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

network of membranes associated with secreting proteins like insulin

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19

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

lacks ribosomes, plays role in detoxification (of blood for example which occurs in the liver), also lipid synthesis

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20

ribosomes

includes instructions for producing proteins that are translated into polypeptides to become functional proteins

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21

cell membrane

phospholipids, fundamental to the formation of cells and allows a cell to have a different internal environment

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22

cell wall

stiff outer layers that provide protection and structure for cells, the outermost layer

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23

what organelles are found in animals

vacuole, mitochondria, nucleus, golgi apparatus, rough ER, smooth ER, ribosomes, cell membrane

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24

what organelles are found in plants

vacuole, nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, golgi apparatus, rough ER, smooth ER, ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall

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25

composition of cell membrane

80% lipid and 20% protein, in the form of phospholipids with a hydrophilic head and two hydrophobic fatty acid tails

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26

how does the phospholipid bilayer form

the hydrophobic tails are repelled by water and face inwards towards eachother and the head faces outwards as they are not repelled by the watery fluids

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27

what does it mean that cell membranes are semi permeable

they let some things pass through them but not all molecules. some may be to big to fit between the phospholipids, or charged molecules

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28

why do materials need to move in and out of a cell?

for a cell to function essential substances need to move into the cell, and waste substances need to pass out.

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29

what are substances crossing a membrane effected by?

  1. concentration of gradient between the internal and external environment

  2. permeability of the cell membrane

  3. the cells surface area to volume ratio

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30

what is diffusion?

the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to low concentration

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31

two types of diffusion

  1. simple diffusion - pass straight through the phospholipid

  2. facilitated diffusion - needs help when the molecule is charged or big

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osmosis

the movement of water particles from an area of high concentration to low concentration

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endocytosis

active transport in which large molecules use vesicles to move inside the cell

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34

exocytosis

active transport in which large molecules use vesicles to move out of the cell

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35

cellular respiration

the process of cells converting nutrients, typically glucose into energy in the from of ATP.

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36

word equation for cellular respiration

glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water + ATP

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37

difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration

aerobic = with oxygen

anaerobic = without oxygen

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38

two stages of aerobic respiration

  1. Glycolysis

  2. Krebs cycle

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39

glycolysis

takes place in the cytoplasm and releases 2 ATP molecules

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krebs cycle

takes place in the mitochondria, reacts with carbon dioxide, releases 34 ATP molecules, water and carbon dioxide.

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organic compounds

complex compoubds synthesised by living things which contain hydrogen and carbon atoms.

  • examples such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids

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inorganic compounds

all other compounds that are not organic

  • examples such as water, oxygen, minerals

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how are cellular products and wastes removed

usually via simple diffusion across the membrane

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factors that increase the rate of chemical reactions

  1. substrate concentration

  2. increase in surface

  3. increase heat

  4. use of a catalyst

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46

word equation for photosynthesis

carbon dioxide + water → glucose + oxygen

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47

light dependent stage in photosynthesis

  • takes place in the grana of chloroplasts, chlorophyll caputures light energy and is used to split the water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen

  • oxygen is released into the atmosphere and hydrogen is carried into the next phase

  • also forms energy in the form of ATP

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48

light independent stage

  • takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts

  • combines carbon dioxide with hydrogen ions to form glucose

  • ATP formed in the light dependent stage provides the energy for this reaction

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49

use of catalyst - enzymes

speed up the rate of reaction by lowering the energy required for a chemical traction to take place

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