# Lecture 4/11

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acute mountain sickness

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### 37 Terms

1

acute mountain sickness

illness due to lack of oxygen; less oxygen in atmosphere

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2

how do animals adapt to conditions where oxygen levels vary

they build structures to adapt to these conditions

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3

what is the total pressure

sum of pressures exerted by each individual gas

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4

how is pressure exerted by a gas determined

percent of environment made up of the gas

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5

what are the four main gases in atmosphere

oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon

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6

what is the air pressure at sea level

one atmosphere

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7

how is air pressure measured

in atmospheres (atm) or mmHg

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8

can partial pressure vary with humidity and why

yes because water in the air makes it so it holds less gas

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9

inert gas

there is a lot of it in the atmosphere, but we don’t really use it

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10

percent of oxygen in the air

20.95%

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11

percent of nitrogen in the air

78.08%

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12

percent of argon in the air

0.93%

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13

percent of CO2 in the air

0.04%

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14

henry’s law

amount of a gas that will dissolve in an aqueous solution is determined by partial pressure and solubility of gas

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15

henry’s law equation

PV=nRT

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16

do different gases have different solubilities

yes

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17

what will happen if gases exchange between aqueous solution and air

they will eventually reach equilibrium

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18

does partial pressure = concentration

no

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19

what is partial pressure of a fluid determined by

solubility of that gas, determines how much gas is allowed into a fluid

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20

how do gases move

by partial pressure gradient, not concentration gradient

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21

does CO2 or O2 have a higher solubility for water

CO2, meaning if there’s excess CO2 in the bodey it makes the body’s pH more acidic.

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22

what environmental factors affect gas solubilities

media, temperature, salinity

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23

what kind of water holds the highest amount of gas

freshwater

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24

what kind of water holds the least amount of gas

hot salt water

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25

convection

bulk flow of gases long distances, changes in total pressure drives convection

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26

diffusion

air movement over short distances

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27

fick equation

J (diffusion rate)= k ((P1-P2)(x)), p= partial pressure, x=distance

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28

how does oxygen get into the blood

the partial pressure of oxygen is less than pp in the lungs and capilaries are very thin, making the gas travel easier, since blood is always moving the partial pressure of it is always the same meaning the gradient strength never changes making gas exchange constant

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29

ventillation

bulk flow of respiratory media (air/water) to and from respiratory exchange membrane; how they exchange gases w/ environment

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30

what are the movements of respiratory exchange

unidirectional and tidal flow

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31

respiratory exchange surfaces

thin epithellia w/ large surface areas

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32

lungs vs external gills and internal gills

lungs are an invagination in the body, external gills are located outside the body, internal gills are located outside the body but protected by outer membrane so not as exposed

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33

what are challenges of respiration in water

water more dense than air (harder to move across gills), lower gas content in water, requires energy to move water across gills

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34

buccal-opercular pumping

create positive and negative pressure gradients in their mouth to move water across gills

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35

how do fish with buccal opercular pumping get water into the mouth

they drop their jaw creating smaller pressure than outside of mouth so water moves from high to low pressure

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36

how do fish with buccal opercular pumping get water out of the mouth

they close mouth increasing pressure and water escapes through gill cavities, operculum covering gills opens allowing water to rush through the gills

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37

ram ventillation

found in very active fish, have their mouths constantly open to push water in through mouth and escape through gills, slightly more efficient way to get oxygen across body

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