Psychology Exam Chapter 7

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Abnormal Psychology


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102 Terms


getting info into memory


retaining information over time


taking info out of storage

structural encoding

emphasizes on the physical structure of the stimulus, ex. is the word written in capital letters?

Phonemic encoding

emphasizes on what a word sounds like, ex. Doe the word rhyme with weight?

Semantic encoding

emphasizes the meaning of verbal input

Elaboration encoding

relate what you're trying to learn to things you already know

Imagery Encoding

making an image in your mind of what you're trying to learn


any little technique to help you remember something, ex. PEMDAS

Sensory memory

large capacity, brief representation of the entire thing you're perceiving in that moment, very brief retention:0.25 seconds

Short term memory

limited capacity, lasts only 20-30 seconds, conscious processing of information, sensory and long term combined

What is short term memory made of?

long and sensory memory

Original Sensory form

comes from sensory memory, but very short duration (visual=0.25 seconds), attend to short term memory, or it is lost

Short term memory

includes conscious processing and what we pull from our long term memory


familiar unit of information

What are the Baddeley 4 components of working memory?

Phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, central executive, buffer

Phonological loop

recitation, original idea of short term memory

Visuospatial Sketchpad

manipulate images

Central executive

juggle information when reasoning


integrating multiple ideas and sending it to long term memory, we don't know if this is the hippocampus

Long term memory

long term storage of information

Procedural(Non-Declarative}) Memory

memories or action, skills, and conditioned responses, thought to be stored in cerebellum

Declarative memory

memory for factual information, much more likely to forget than procedural memory, thought to be stored in the limbic system

Semantic memory(semantic=meaning)

general knowledge, ex. state capitals, definitions

Episodic memory

personal experiences, much more likely to forget than semantic memory

State dependent memory

mental and physical state of the memory if you were drunk when you observed it, get drunk to remember it. Retrieval is best when the retrieval cues match the encoding cues

Serial Position Effect

we best recall first and last items on a list

primary effect, lack of interference

The tendency to remember the first part of the list

Recency effect, lack of interference

the tendency to remember the last part of the list

Critical word test

set of words, one word ties all words together , 50% recall, 80% recognition

Is memory perfect storage?



we tend to remember things consistent to our expectation (stereotyping, schema)


a cognitive framework or concept that helps organize and interpret information

Source monitoring error

when we remember something, but we misattribute where we got the info, ex. saying you saw something on the news, but you saw it on facebook

Flashbulb memories

ex. flood stories

Post event information

if we learn something about an event after it happens we tend to add it to our memory

Who was Elizabeth Loftus?

wording of questions lady

Misinformation effect

a simple change in learning, can be slipped into the witnesses memory

Herbing Ebbinghaus

nonsense syllables, (3 letters that go together with no word/association)

Relearning memory

the longer way to relearn the list, the more forgotten

Forgetting curve

forgetting is rapid at first, then slows

ineffective (shallow) Encoding

never in memory, psuedo-forgetting

Decay theory

information disappears over time, applies to sensory and short term memory but NOT to long term memory (we don't forget linearly)

Proactive interference

we learned something first, then learned something else, we don't remember the second thing (more common than retroactive interference)

Retroactive interference

we learned something first, then learned something else, we don't remember the first thing (less common than proactive interference)

Encoding specificity principle

we remember best when the cues available at the retrieval time are the same as the ones in decoding

Motivated forgetting(Freud)

repression, loss of memory for unpleasant stimuli

Repressed memory controversy

are they false? or true, some are true most are not (think girls thinking they had been sexually abused, influenced by therapists)

Consolidation of Memory

taking new information and putting into a long term form, seems to be done in the hippocampus, and while we sleep