cmd 160: exam 2 (not mine)

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speech development

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106 Terms

1

speech development

the progressive evolving and shaping of individual sounds and syllables that are used as arbitrary symbols and applied in rule-governed combinations to produce words to communicate a person's wants, needs, thoughts, knowledge, and feelings

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2

language development

the progressive growth of a receptive and expressive communication system for representing concepts using arbitrary symbols (sounds and words) and rule-governed combinations of those symbols (grammar).

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3

theories of speech and language

  • behavioral

  • nativist

  • semantic-cognitive

  • social-pragmatic

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4

development behavioral theory

  • bf skinner

  • says language is a set of verbal behaviors learned through operant conditioning

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5

operant learning

learning model for changing behavior (rewards and punishments/spontaneous occurrence)

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shaping (successive approximations)

reinforcement of each response that more closely resembles the target response until target response is aquired

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behavioral theory clinical application

stimulus response (S-R) program

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8

development nativist theory

  • a perspective of language development that emphasize the acquisition of language as an INNATE, physiologically determined, and genetically transmitted phenomenon

  • "prewired" for language acquisition

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9

nativist theory clinical application

  • what a child has not learned naturally should be taught

  • ie: therapy

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10

semantic-cognitive theory clinical application

  • complexity: how complex the sentence is

  • amount: amount of information you are trying to convey in a sentence

  • rate: how quickly you say the sentence

  • duration: how long a child needs to think about what you are saying

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11

development semantic-cognitive theory

  • a perspective of language development that emphasizes the interrelationship between language learning and cognition - that is, meanings conveyed by a child's productions

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12

early, mid, late speech developing sounds

sounds that favor ease of articulation are typically acquired FIRST, and more complex sounds are acquired LATER

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13

browns morphemes

  • present progressive (ing)

  • prepositions (in & on)

  • plural (-s)

  • irregular past (ran, wrote, swung)

  • possessive (-s, the girl's car)

  • uncontractable copula (it is -> not it is)

  • articles (the, an, a)

  • regular past tense (walked, faced, jumped)

  • third person present tense regular (-s, walks, drives, looks)

  • third person present tense irregular (is, does, goes, has)

  • uncontractable auxiliary "be" (he is running late)

  • contractible copula (he's running late)

  • contractible auxiliary (he's running late)

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14

development social-pragmatic theory

  • a perspective of language development that considers communication as the basic function of language

  • turn-taking (develop an attachment to caregiver and use joint attention in order to engage with verbal and nonverbal turn-taking)

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15

efferent neurons

  • brain to everywhere else (motor neurons)

  • convey impulse from top to bottom

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16

social- pragmatic theory clinical application

  • caregivers facilitate language development

  • SLPs assess and treat language impairments from social-communicative and contextual perspective

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17

afferent neurons

  • anywhere in the brain (sensory neurons)

  • convey impulse bottom to top

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18

glial cells

  • speed transmission up through neuron

  • cover parts of a neuron to make info be processed faster

  • remove dead cells from nervous system

  • located in the myelin sheath

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19

occiptal lobe

vision

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20

temporal lobe

language, hearing, memory

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parietal lobe

receives sensory input for touch and body position

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frontal lobe

executive function

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23

on diagram area 42 is

wernicke's area (processing)

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24

on diagram area 44 is

broca's area (production)

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25

left hemisphere specialization

  • speech and language

  • sequential processing

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26

right hemisphere specialization

  • expressing emotion, face recognition

  • holistic processing

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27

cranial nerves

  • part of the peripheral nervous system

  • 12 pairs of cranial nerves

  • 31 pairs of spinal nerves

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28

5 cranial nerves need to know

  • 5: trigeminal nerve (helps chewing)

  • 7: facial (motor neurons to facial muscles)

  • 8: auditory (vestibulocochlea/balance)

  • 10: vagus (throat movement) **

  • 12: hypoglossal (tongue movement)

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29

vocal folds

thin membrane

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30

adduction

coming together (closer)

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31

abduction

separating (apart)

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32

fundamental frequency

the lowest harmonic frequency, rate of how quickly your vocal cords vibrate

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33

quiet breathing

automatic, passive, inhale and exhale equal time

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34

speech breathing

exhale longer than inhale, to maintain pressure in order to speak

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35

main parts of vocal tract

oral cavity, nasal cavity, velopharynx (where nasal and oral cavity meet), pharynx (back of throat to vocal chords)

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36

structures of vocal tract

lips, teeth, alveolar ridge (hard palate), velum, tongue, mandible (jaw), tongue, pharyngeal wall

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37

coarticulation

overlapping of adjacent articulations OR moving at the same time for different phonemes (ie: keep = k and e are coarticulated bc the shape of your mouth is already ready for the next sound)

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38

what is phonology

knowledge of the language conventions or rules for combining sounds to produce sounds and sequences (language is rule based)

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what is articulation

motor skills involved in producing sounds in sequence (motor movement)

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40

what is a speech delay

a pattern that is typical for children that are younger, continues after sound should be learned (rabbit = wabbit)

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41

what is a speech disorder

different/abnormal speech pattern unlike children at any age (ie: rabbit = abbit)

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42

phonological processes

  • cluster reduction (try = tie -"drop r")

  • weak syllable deletion (banana = nana)

  • final consonant deletion (dog = dah)

  • initial consonant deletion (disorder, dog = og)

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43

severity

related to:

  • of sounds produced correctly (entire inventory)

  • accuracy of production (each sound correctly)

  • ability to produce sounds in diff. word positions

  • ability to produce sound sequences

  • ability to produce various types of words closely linked to intelligibility of speech

  • understand what they say (intelligible)

  • age 4 should be intelligible to familiar &unfamiliar listener

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44

mild severity

  • produce a few sounds in error

  • usually involves a few of the 'late 8' sounds (sh, th, s, z, l, r, dz)

  • generally intelligible to most speakers

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45

moderate severity

  • difficulty producing all the sounds within a single class (velars, final consonant deletion, incorrect use of sounds in certain word position, cluster reduction)

  • intelligible to friends and family members, but not to unfamiliar listeners

  • good prognosis but longer treatment

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46

severe severity

  • unintelligible to most listeners

  • more than six sounds in error in all positions of words

  • do not sequence sounds consistently

  • may rely heavily on gestures to communicate

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47

speech disorder

different/abnormal speech pattern, unlike children at any age (should never happen)

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48

etiology of funtional

  • the cause cannot be determined

  • see it behaviorally

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49

etiology of perceptual

  • the way you hear something

  • cause: type of hearing loss

  • might have speech disorder

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50

etiology of structural

problem with articulator (leads to a structural speech disorder)

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51

etiology of motor

unable to move articulators the way they are supposed to be used

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52

speech assessment

  • goal: determine nature and severity of disorder/delay

  • describe production and compare speech patterns to others the same age (speech samples, articulation tests, note behaviors)

  • assess contributing factors (hearing screening, oral-mech examination)

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53

speech intervention

treatment (articulation-based approaches, phonological approaches)

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54

articulation-based approach

  • teaching the motor movements necessary for speech

  • repetitive motor practice with feedback, done at various levels (phoneme, syllables, words, phrases, sentences)

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55

phonological approach

  • contrast therapy: show pictures representing word pairs that differ on one dimension (ie: Ring v Wing, Toe v Know)

  • final consonant deletion (ie: See v Seat)

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56

types of cleft palate/lip

  • unilateral cleft lip

  • bilateral cleft lip

  • unilateral cleft lip and palate

  • bilateral cleft lip and palate

  • cleft palate

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57

unilateral cleft lip

a

<p>a</p>
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58

bilateral cleft lip

b, c

<p>b, c</p>
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59

unilateral cleft lip and palate

e

<p>e</p>
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60

bilateral cleft lip and palate

f

<p>f</p>
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61

velopharyngeal closure

  • constriction formed by the velum and the rear wall of the pharynx, resulting in a diversion of the airstream into the oral cavity

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62

cleft palate

d

<p>d</p>
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63

problems with the velopharyngeal closure

  • hypernasal vowels (vowel air should come out of mouth, but instead it goes out nose)

  • nasal emission on consonants

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64

nasality

the quality of sound produced through nasal passages

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65

compensatory articulations

occlude the airway behind the velopharyngeal port for all stops (ie: glottal stops, pharyngeal stops, pharyngeal fricatives)

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66

speech assessment for cleft lip and palate children

  • articulation testing

  • examination of the speech production mechanism (aerodynamic studies, nasopharyngoscopy)

  • nasality (nasometer)

  • observation and judgement (nasality, speech production)

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67

intervention for cleft lip and palate children

  • articulation therapy

  • eliminate compensatory strategies already in place

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68

childhood language disorders

  • significant difficulties with the cognitive or linguistic abilities that support language learning

  • limitation in language form, content, or use that interfere with participation in social or academic activities

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69

causes of language disorders

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70

impairment of language form - infants/toddlers

  • 0-2

  • low frequency of vocalizations

  • lack of syllable productions in babbling

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71

impairment of language form - preschoolers

  • 2-5

  • immature or disordered phonology

  • grammatical morphology errors

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72

impairment of language form - school age

  • 5-18

  • difficulties with complex sentences

  • poor narrative and expository skills

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73

impairment of language content - infants/toddlers

  • 0-2

  • understand few words in context

  • less than 50 words by age 2

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74

impairment of language content - preschoolers

  • 2-5

  • restricted vocabulary size

  • reduced comprehension of basic concepts

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75

impairment of language use - infants/toddlers

  • 0-2

  • lack of intentionality

  • restricted range of communicative functions

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76

impairment of language content - school age

  • 5-18

  • incoherent stories

  • difficulties with figurative language

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77

impairment of language use - preschoolers

  • 2-5

  • limited assertiveness and/or responsiveness

  • difficulty initiating and maintaining topics

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78

indicators of language disorders

  • test scores

  • language sample measures

  • negative social, psychological, educational, and vocational consequences

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79

learning disability

  • difficulty acquiring and using listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning or mathematical ability

  • no known etiology

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80

impairment of language use - school age

  • 5-18

  • inappropriate references (no filter)

  • poor topic maintenance

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81

developmental language disorder/specific language impairment

  • significant developmental delays despite: normal cognitive functioning, normal childhood experiences, normal hearing and vision, no signs of neurological impairment

  • affects 5-7% of school age population

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82

intellectual disability

  • significantly below average general intellectual functioning (IQ)

  • significant limitations in adaptive functioning (self-care, home living, social/interpersonal skills)

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83

autism spectrum disorder

  • pervasive impairments like reciprocal social interaction skills, communication skills, stereotypical/repetitive behaviors, interests and activities

  • 0.5% of population

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84

assessment of language

  • team approach

  • standardized tests

  • language samples

  • non-biased assessment (dynamic assessment and multicultural considerations)

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85

language stimulation expansion

add words to what the child says (ie: child: "blue", you: "blue car")

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86

language stimulation extension

take what the child says and expand the thought (ie: child: "blue car", you: "blue car, oh there's a red car")

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87

language stimulation recast

child says something incorrectly and you model it back correctly (ie: child: "two car", you: "yes I see two cars)

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88

literacy-based intervention

  • pre-reading discussions, multiple readings of the books, reinforcing concepts

  • mini lessons focusing on semantics, syntax, morphology, narration, and phonological awareness

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89

language stimulation buildup & breakdown

  • expanding and extending

  • breakdown what a child says

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90

service delievery

  • ages 0-3: gov. required to help families address children's special needs, infant parent programs

  • IDEA ages 3-21: free appropriate public education, least restrictive environment

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91

fluency

easy, smooth, flowing, and effortless speech

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92

disfluency

marked by word or phrase repetitions, interjections, pauses, and revisions

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93

stuttering

  • unusual, tense disfluencies that interfere with communication

  • unusually high durations of repetitions, prolongations, and/or blocks (know what they want to say but cannot produce it)

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94

cluttering

rapid bursts of dysrhythmic, unintelligible speech (do not know what they are trying to say)

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95

repetitions (stuttering)

  • repeated syllables in a word trying to be said (ie: b-b-b-b-baseball, I-I-I-I-I like baseball)

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96

audible sound prolongations (stuttering)

  • sound trying to be said continues (ie: mmmmmmmotorcycle)

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97

inaudible sound prolongations (stuttering)

  • blockage of the sound that is trying to be said (ie: b-------baseball)

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98

primary stuttering behaviors

  • sound syllable repetitions

  • audible sound prolongations

  • inaudible sound prolongations (blocks)

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99

secondary stuttering behaviors

  • counterproductive behaviors as people try to avoid primary stuttering behaviors

  • become more automatic

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100

myths about stuttering

  • stuttering is a nervous reaction

  • overly sensitive parents

  • are more introverted

  • have less self-confidence

  • have lower intelligence

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