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What are the 3 rules of Cell Theory?
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cells are structural and functional units of life 2. cells come from existing cells 3. all living things are made of one or more cells
What does function determine?
What is the big phrase that needs to be remembered?
form follows function
Who named cells "cells"? (discovered through the research of cork cells)
Who created the microscope?
Who discovered the nucleus?
Who was one of the first to study plant cells?
Who was one of the first to study animal cells?
Who came up with the fact that cells came from the division of pre-existing cells?
Who accepted the fact that cells came from the division of pre-existing cells?
Who came up with the fact that living things come from living things? (did the maggot experiment)
What is the cell membrane made out of?
What is the jell like material of the cytoplasm called?
What do prokaryotes not have?
nucleus and membrane bound organelles
What kind of barriers protect prokaryotic cells from the environment?
cell membrane, cell wall, and sometimes capsule
Where is the DNA located in prokaryotic cells?
in the nucleoid (area in the cytoplasm)
What do eukaryotes have that prokaryotes don't?
What barriers protect eukaryotic cells from the environment?
cell membrane and sometimes cell wall
What is one type of organelles? (starts with m)
What are membranous organelles?
organelles with a membrane that isolates it from the cytosol
What is the cell membranes job?
to protect the cell from the outer environment
What is the model of the cell membrane called and why?
fluid mosaic model due to glycoproteins
What is present in the fatty acid tails of the phospholipid bilayer?
What is the job of the nucleus?
give instruction on building and maintaining cells and responding to changes in the environment
What is a histone?
a protein found in the nucleus
What is a nucleosome?
DNA wrapped around a histone
When does DNA super coil?
when a cell starts to divide
What does a super coiled DNA make?
What is DNA wrapped around a histone?
What is chromosome?
What is chromotin?
What is a replicated chromosome?
two supercoiled DNA strands connected
What are the two supercoiled DNA strands called in a replicated chromosome?
What is the center where the two DNA strands connect called?
chromatin (cell not dividing)
super coiled chromosome (cell is dividing)
What is the job of the ER (endoplasmic reticulum)?
transport proteins, synthesize lipids, and break down toxins
What are the two types of ER?
rough ER and smooth ER
Why is rough ER called "rough"?
due to the ribosomes attached to it
What is the ER made of?
membranes that create a network of tubules
Where do the tubules of the ER lead?
from nucleus to cell membrane
What is the job of the golgi body/golgi apparatus?
to process, package and transport macromolecules
____ carries ____ from ____ to the golgi body?
vesicles carry proteins from ER
What is the process of processing in the in the golgi body?
What does the golgi apparatus do to molecules
combines them to form complex molecules
What are vesicles?
containers enclosed by a phospholipid bilayer that transports molecules throughout the cell
What is the process of putting molecules into vesicles called?
What is exocytosis?
ejection of waste
What is the job of lysosomes?
to break down damaged organelles, cells with damaged DNA, and extracellular solid/fluid
What are lysosomes full of?
What kind of pH level do lysosomes operate at?
low pH level
What is the job of peroxisomes?
to break down fatty acids H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) to 2H2O and O2 (2 water molecules and an oxygen molecule)
What is the job of the mitochondria?
to create energy
What did the mitochondria used to be?
heterotroph prokaryotic cell
What type of cells contain lots of mitochondria?
What are the parts of the mitochondria?
outer membrane, inner membrane, DNA, matrix (jell), cristae (folds of the inner membrane)
What did chloroplasts used to be?
autotroph prokaryotic cells
What is the job of chloroplasts?
to help capture sunlight for photosynthesis
What are the parts of the chloroplasts?
outer membrane, inner membrane, DNA, stroma (jell), thylakoid (one plate), granum (a stack of plates)
What pigment does chlorophyll have?
Chloroplast is the ____ that contains ____
chloroplast is the plastid that contains chlorophyll
What are plastids?
organelles that contain pigments
What are the three types of plastids?
chloroplast (green pigment), chromoplast (other color pigments), leucoplast (stores starch)
What is the job of vacuoles?
to store water
What is the job of the cell wall?
to maintain the shape and structure of the cell
What is the cell wall made out of?
What did some bacteria evolve into?
mitochondria and chloroplasts
What is the ability to let only certain molecules in and out of the cell?
What shape do bacteria usually come in?
sphere, rod, corkscrew
What is the prokaryotes' cell wall made of?
lipids, carbs, and proteins
What is the job of flagella?
to help move the cell around
What are the flagella made out of?
What is the job of the rough ER?
What is the job of the smooth ER?
synthesize lipids and break down toxins
What is the job of the cytoskeleton?
maintain cell shape and form, movement of organelles, protect organelles
What is the cytoskeleton made out of?
Protein fibers can be ____ or ____
protein fibers can be hollow or solid
What are hollow protein fibers called?
What are solid protein fibers called?
Where are the microvilli, cilia, and flagella located?
outside of the cell