AP Euro: Scientific Revolution

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Math in the Scientific Revolution


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Physical Science

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Math in the Scientific Revolution

Standardized math symbols across the world. Analytical Geometry created by Descartes Calculus created by Newton

Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

English philosopher and empiricist believed in inductive reasoning Inductive = Sherlock Holmes Deductive = Aristotle

Jean Baptiste Lamarack (1744-1829)

French biologist, early theory of evolution where its based on choice ex: Giraffes want the leaves on trees so their necks grew longer

What did Joseph II of Austria do to reform his country/ who was he?

Son and successor of Maria Theresa He thought he was a failure for reforming Abolished serfdom but it largely came back over time

Legacy of the Enlightenment

-Individualism - Citizens not subjects -Democratic Revolutions (America and France) -Widespread reform democracy and republicanism with Western Europe -Rationalism, Empiricism, Skepticism, and Secularism core concepts of the educated elite -19th century conservatives, blamed the enlightenment for dismantling traditional society, like the 3 estates

How were the literacy rates during the enlightenment compared to before the enlightenment?

-Much higher in the enlightenment -80% for men, 60% for women in west Europe -Lending libraries became a thing because books were expensive

  • "Reading Revolution"

Rene Descartes (1596-1650)

A French philosopher and mathematician who created the idea of rationalism and strongly believed in deductive reasoning "I think therefore I am"

Who was John Locke and what were his accomplishments?

-Wrote "Two Treaties of Government" -Virtue and rationality can be learned

  • Humans are born with a "Tableau Rasa" (Blank Slate) -Natural rights are given by God to all human beings "Life, liberty, and property"

  • Government derives power from a contract with government

  • Against Divine Right of Kings -Favored a republic as the best form of government

Johannes Kepler (1571- 1630)

German astronomer who believed in the helio centric theory but believed planetary bodies moved in an elliptical motion

Nicholas Copernicus

Polish Astronomer and priest who published "Concerning the revolution of celestial spheres" stating the heliocentric theory. He published on his deathbed to avoid persecution from the church

What are some factors leading to the scientific revolution?

  • Rise of universities

  • Less isolation and contact with non-western cultures

  • Exploration and competition between countries

  • The Renaissance and the rise of individualism and secularism

  • The reformation and questioning of religious authority

What were women's role in the scientific revolution in the Enlightenment

They were largely excluded from the scientific revolution and had to find creative ways to participate

Renaissance Medicine

Andreas Vesalius - A renaissance physician who performed dissections to better understand anything Created the first comprehensive textbook of human anatomy

What effect did the Enlightenment have on peoples view of race?

  • Grouping people by race was new in the Enlightenment

  • Previously people were grouped more by religion or nation/place of origin

  • Most Enlightenment thinkers argued non "white" were inferior

What did Rousseau believe in and what did he do?

  • Wrote "Emile" and "The Social Contract"

  • "Liberty, equality and Fraternity"

  • Women should be excluded from education and should only be mothers and wives

  • Progress in arts and sciences does not correspond with progress in morality

  • A civilization progresses, people become lost in society

  • Virtue exists in "state of nature" but lost in society

  • "Man is born free, yet everywhere he is in chains"

What was the "Great Debate"? Explain both sides

Reason and Logic

  • Rationalism, Empiricism, Tolerance, Skepticism, Deism Traditions and Superstitions

  • Nostalgia for the past, organized religion, Irrationalism, Emotionalism

Where was the Royal Academy of Sciences located? What kind of labs did it host?

Paris, Biology and Chemistry

What is the Scientific Revolution?

A revolution in human understanding about the physical universe during the 17th century

What were Voltaire's main enlightened thoughts/beliefs?

  • Freedom of Speech

  • Deism

  • Skepticism -Atheism

Who were philosophes?

Students of Society who analyzed its evils and advanced reforms

What were the main scientific realizations of the Scientific Revolution?

  • Newtons "Classical Mechanics" system explained that the universe was rational and based on scientific laws

  • Scientific laws could be put into math formulas and were rational

  • Progressive thought process and application of knowledge

Laws of Motion

  1. Law of Inertia - An object at rest stays at rest, and an object in motion stays in motion

  2. Fundamental Law of Dynamics - The acceleration of an object depends on the mass of an object and the amount of force applied

  3. Law of Reciprocal Actions - Whenever one object exerts force over another object the second object exerts opposite force on the first

What is Ptolemy's significance?

A 2nd Century Greek astronomer who is credited with the creation of the geocentric threory

Who were the 3 main USA philosophes?

-John Adams

  • Benjamin Franklin

  • Thomas Jefferson

What was the main cause of the Enlightenment?

Scientific Revolution

Significance of the Scientific Revolution

  • Abandonment of ancient and medieval system for the elite

  • Development of the scientific method

  • Direct cause of the enlightenment

  • Increased secularism

What are the 13 characteristics of the Enlightenment? Know at least 6

  1. Rationalism

  2. Secularism

  3. Scientific Method

  4. Utilitarianism

  5. Tolerance

  6. Humanism

  7. Freedom

  8. Education of the masses

  9. Legal reforms

  10. Constitutionalism

  11. Cosmopolitanism

  12. Religion

  13. Deism

Contrasts in science before and after the scientific revolution


  • Reason based, Philosophers not Scientists (Aristotle), No observation or experimental method After

  • Scientific Method, Secularism in science, Rationalism, Application of science to everyday life, Open-mindedness

Galileo Galilei

  • Italian astronomer known as the Father of Science.

  • Made many astronomical discoveries using the telescope

  • Used methods of induction and empiricism

  • Disproved of Aristotle's theory of falling objects

  • Wrote "Dialogue on the Two chief system of the World" proving Heliocentric theory

  • Inquisition put him on trial and forced him to recant

Chemistry in the Scientific Revolution

Antione Lavoisier - Who set in motion the Chemical Revolution, Changed the way elements are classified


Ancient Greek physician who believed in Bodily humors (Blood, Phlegm, Bile) Developed Bloodletting treatments to balance fluids

Carolus Linnaeus

Swedish Botanist Classified and named Flora and Fauna

What did Mary Wollstonecraft argue for? Who was she?

English Philosopher and Feminist

  • Argued for equal education for men and women because better educated women would help society progress (especially with specific professions)

  • Very against Rousseau's view on women

What is Frederick the great of prussia most known for?

  • Saw himself as "First Servant of the State"

  • Allowed debate and a degree of free speech in Prussia

  • Potato man

What reforms did Catherine the Great do?

  • Built schools, Roads, and Apartments

  • Communicated with philosophes

  • Did not free serfs

  • Gave power to nobles

  • Frequently at war with neighbors and expanded the size of Russia

  • Added area size of France to Russia


Reason rather than experience/ tradition is the foundation of certainty in knowledge Deductive reasoning

What did Montesquieu believe in and what did he do?

  • Spirit of Laws (applied scientific principles to society, Checks and Balances)

  • Liked Republic Government

Sir Isaac Newton

  • English astronomer, physicist, and mathematician

  • Synthesized heliocentric theory with "Principia"

  • Created Calculus

  • Deeply Religious


  • Experience is the only source of knowledge

  • Hallmark of the scientific revolution

  • Helped lead to the development of the scientific method

William Harvey

  • Scientific Revolution physician

  • Described the function of the heart and circulatory system

  • Disproved Galen's theories

Law of Ellipses

Planets orbit the Sun in an elliptical motion, created by Kepler

What did Denis Diderot believe in? What did he create?

  • Scientific Method

  • Skepticism

  • Applied scientific revolution to society

  • Rationalism

  • Created encyclopedia

  • Deduction/Induction

How did Catherine the Great take over Russia?

She married Peter III then overtook him in a coup

Medieval Medicene

  • Based around the Church and or tradition

  • Provided care for the poor

  • Minor clerics rook on physician roles

What did David Hume believe in?

  • Argued that belief in God was based on superstition and fear

  • Atheism

  • Skepticism

Microscope famous user Telescope famous users Pendulum Clock inventor Barometer inventor Thermometer inventor

  • Microscope: Robert Hooke

  • Telescope: Galileo, Newton

  • Pendulum Clock: Christian Huygens

  • Barometer: Evangelista Torricelli

  • Thermometer: Santario x2

What was Madame Geoffrin a part of and what did she host?

  • Part of "Republic of Letters" (Salons that read Philosophes letters)

  • She demonstrated qualities of politeness and civility