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56 Terms


the study of human population


inhabited land

arable land

any land capable of being used to grow crops

arithmetic density

calculated by dividing a regions population by its total area

physiological density

calculated by dividing the population by the amount of arable land

agricultural density

calculated by dividing the number of farmers in an area by the amount of arable land

social stratification

the hierarchal division of people into groups based on economic status, power, and or ethnicity


having more people in an area than it can support

carrying capacity

the number of people a region can support without damaging the environment


a boundary adjustment

population pyramid

an age-sex composition graph that provides information about birth rates, death rates, life expectancy, and economic development based on age and gender

crude death rate (CDR)

the number of deaths during the year per 1000 people

crude birth rate (CBR)

the number of live births during the year per 1000 people

natural increase rate or rate of natural increase (NIR or RNI)

the percentage at which a country's population is growing or declining without the impact of migration

doubling time

the time it takes for a population to double in size


the frequency of death in a population

total fertility rate (TFR)

the number of children who would be born per woman

infant mortality rate (IMR)

the number of children who die before their first birthday

life expectancy

the average number of years a person lives


migration from a place (people moving out of a country)


people coming into a country

demographic transition model (DTM)

shows 5 typical stages of population change that countries experience as they modernize

epidemiological transition model (ETM)

shows predictable stages in disease and life expectance as countries develop


wide spread diseases that affect a large population

zero population growth

the number of people in a population neither grows nor declines


people who accept Malthus's fundamental premise as correct

malthus critic

when world population increase faster than food production rate which results in mass starvation.

boserup theory

the more people there are the more hand there are to work rather than just mouths to feed

anti-natalist policy

policies that attempt to decrease the number of births in a country

pro-natalist policy

programs designed to increase the fertility rate

ravenstein's laws of migration

the foundation of modern migration studies in geography

dependency ratio

a value comparing the working to non-working parts of a population


the permanent or semi-permanent relocation of people from one place to another

push factors

negative circumstances, events, or conditions present where a person lives that compels a person to leave

pull factors

positive circumstances, events, or conditions in an area than compels a person to move there

intervening obstacles

barriers that make migrants reaching their desired destinations more difficult

intervening opportunities

opportunities migrants may encounter en route that disrupts their original migration plan

counter migration

when a migration flow produces a movement in the opposite direction

migration transition model

countries in stages 2 and 3 on the DTM experience rapid population growth and often overcrowding which limits economic opportunity causing people to not migrate to those countries

gravity model

size and distance of 2 cities or countries will influence the amount of interactions

internal migration

the movement that occurs within a country

voluntary migration

occurs when people choose to relocate

forced migration

migration that is involuntary (migrants have no choice but to move)

chain migration

migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there

step migration

a migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages


refers to the movement of people from rural areas to urban area


people who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion

internally displaced person

someone who has been forced to migrate for similar political reasons as a refugee but has not crossed an international border

asylum seekers

someone who has migrated to another country in the hope of being recognized as a refugee