Holes Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1

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82 Terms

1

anatomy*

Branch of science dealing with the form and structure of body parts

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2

physiology*

concerns the functions of body parts- what they do and how they do it

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3

levels of organization (smallest to largest)*

atoms, molecules, organelles, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism

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4

Human Organ Systems*

Skeletal, Circulatory, Respiratory, Excretory, Nervous, Integumentary, Muscular, Immune, Digestive, Reproductive, Endocrine

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5

Metabolism*

the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.

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6

Homeostasis*

A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level

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7

receptors

Special structures that allow living organisms to sense the conditions of their internal or external environment.

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8

set point

the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.

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9

effectors

-produces a response e.g.muscle contracts to move hand away from stimulus or gland squeezes and releases hormone into blood.

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10

negative feedback*

A primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable that is being monitored triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation.

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11

axial

Relating to head, neck, and trunk, the axis of the body

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12

appendicular

Relating to limbs and their attachments to the axis

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13

Anatomical position

To stand erect with arms at the sides and palms of the hands turned forward

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14

Superior*

Higher on the body, nearer to the head

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15

inferior*

Lower on the body, farther from the head

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16

Anterior*

front of the body

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17

Posterior*

toward the back

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18

Medial*

Toward the midline of the body

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19

Lateral*

Away from the midline of the body

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20

Proximal*

Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

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21

Distal*

farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

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22

Superficial*

near the surface

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23

Deep*

away from the surface of the body

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24

Anatomical Planes of the Body*

Sagittal- Divides into Left/ Right (nose) Transverse- Divides into Superior/ Inferior Frontal- Divides Anterior/ Posterior

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25

Sagittal*

A plane that divides the body into right and left portions.

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26

Transverse*

Divides body into upper and lower parts

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27

Coronal*

Cuts the body into a front half and a back half

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28

Abdominal

pertaining to the abdomen

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29

Acromial

point of shoulder

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30

Antebrachial

pertaining to the forearm

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31

Antecubital

space in front of the elbow

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32

Axillary

pertaining to the armpit

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Brachial

pertaining to the arm

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34

Carpal

pertaining to the wrist

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Cephalic

pertaining to the head

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Cervical

pertaining to the neck

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Costal

pertaining to the ribs

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Coxal

pertaining to the hip

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39

Cubital

elbow

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40

Crural

lower leg

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Digital

fingers, toes

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Dorsal

pertaining to the back

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43

Femoral

pertaining to the thigh

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44

Frontal

pertaining to the forehead

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45

Genital

reproductive organs

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Gluteal

pertaining to the buttocks

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Inguinal

pertaining to the groin

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48

Lumbar

area of back between ribs and hips

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49

Mammary

pertaining to the breast

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50

Mental

pertaining to the chin

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Nasal

pertaining to the nose

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Occipital

back of head

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Oral

pertaining to the mouth

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54

Orbital

eye cavity

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Palmar

pertaining to the palm of the hand

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56

Patellar

kneecap

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Pectoral

pertaining to the chest

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Pedal

pertaining to the foot

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Pelvic

pelvis region

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Perineal

region between the anus and the external reproductive organs

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Plantar

sole of foot

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Popliteal

area behind the knee

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63

Sacral

Posterior region between the hip bones

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64

Sternal

breastbone area

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Sural

Calf or posterior surface of the leg

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Tarsal

ankle region

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Umbilical

pertaining to the navel

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Vertebral

area of spinal column

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pubic region

Middle Lower Abdominal region

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70

right hypochondriac region

Upper Right region

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71

Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)

Lower Right Quadrant of Abdomials

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72

right inguinal region

right lower region of Abdominals

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Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)

Upper Right quadfrant of Abdominals

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epigastric region

top middle region

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left hypochondriac region

left upper region below the rib cartilage

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76

Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)

lower left quadrant of abdomen

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77

left inguinal region

left lower region of the lower row by the groin

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78

Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ)

Upper left quadrant of abdomen

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79

Bilateral

Paired structures, one on each side

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80

Contralateral

on the opposite side of the body from another structure

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81

Ipsilateral

on the same side of the body as another structure

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82

Ventral

belly side

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