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having cells that lack membrane-bound nuclei
having cells with `good' or membrane-bound nuclei
the membrane found in all cells that separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment
an organelle in the cytoplasm of a living cell
a self-replicating material that is present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.
the membrane-enclosed organelle within a cell that contains the chromosomes
the protoplasm of a cell excluding the nucleus; is full of proteins that control cell metabolism
a specialized part of a cell; analogous to an organ
the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins
a threadlike strand of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
a small anatomically normal sac or bladderlike structure
the transportation system of the eukaryotic cell
synthesizes lipids, phospholipids as in plasma membranes, and steroids.
produces proteins that will become part of the endomembrane system, the plasma membrane or to be secreted
a factory in which proteins received from the ER are further processed and sorted for transport to their eventual destinations: lysosomes, the plasma membrane, or secretion.
an organelle found in the cytoplasm of most cells
equester diverse oxidative reactions and play important roles in metabolism, reactive oxygen species detoxification, and signaling.
a tiny cavity filled with fluid in the cytoplasm of a cell
plastid containing chlorophyll and other pigments; in plants that carry out photosynthesis
powerhouse of the cell
organizes microtubules that serve as the cell's skeletal system.
a microscopic network of actin filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells that gives the cell shape and coherence
generate the forces used in cellular contraction and basic cell movements
create cell cohesion and prevent the acute fracture of epithelial cell sheets under tension.
regulating cell growth and movement as well as key signaling events, which modulate fundamental cellular processes.
moves water relative to the cell in a regular movement of the cilia
a small round body of protein in a cell nucleus; such organelles contain RNA and are involved in protein synthesis
thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.
its ability to differentiate between different types of molecules, only allowing some molecules through while blocking others
the ability for a cell to maintain stable conditions/independent conditions based on its enviorment
a gradient in concentration of a solute as a function of distance through a solution(high to low)
the process in which there is movement of a substance from an area of high concentration of that substance to an area of lower concentration
a stable situation in which forces cancel one another(are balanced)
diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
(portions) form pores in membrane of biological cells
2 concentrations being equal(mainly preferred for animal cells)
in a state of abnormally high tension
lacking normal tone or tension(mainly preferred for plants)
transport of a substance across a cell membrane by diffusion; expenditure of energy is not required
DOES NOT NEED energy to occur. helps proteins to pass through membrane
when the cell membrane stretches around to needed material(forms vacuoles)
vacuoles consisting of proteins/enzymes
process in which phagocytes engulf and digest microorganisms and cellular debris
process by which certain cells can engulf and incorporate droplets of fluid
a group of cells that have similar structure and that function together as a unit
a part of an organism that is typically self-contained and has a specific vital function, such as the heart or liver in humans.
a biological system consisting of a group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions
used microscope to examine thin slices of cork. -gave the the name "cells"
"father of microbiology" -made his own microscope -used single-lense microscope to examine pond
said "all animals are made of cells"
said "all plants are made of cells"
all cells come from cells