Biology 1020 Exam 2 - Mizzou

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Wavelength

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73 Terms

1

Wavelength

distance between peaks (longer = less energy, shorter = more energy)

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2

Absorption of light

 Light energy retained by objects (pigment particles)  Absorbed light is the only type of light that can be used in photosynthesis.  Black absorbs all colors.

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3

Reflection of Light

Light energy NOT retained by objects This light is bounced back and becomes visible to our eyes. White reflects all colors

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4

Transmission of Light

Light energy that passes through the object, but is not absorbed by the object If the object is transparent, light can pass through it

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5

Absorption Spectrum

Pigments have their own optimal absorption wavelength.

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6

Action Spectrum in the Absorption Spectrum

The action spectrum determines what a single plant can absorb while the absorption spectrum determines what each pigment can absorb

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7

Chromatography

Chromatography is the process used to separate pigments based on their solubility.

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8

How does chromatography work?

As the solvent moves up the strip, pigments are picked up along the way.

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9

Rf value

the ratio of the solute's distance travelled to the solvent's distance travelled

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10

How do you calculate Rf value?

a/b. The farther a pigment travels up the strip, the more soluble it is

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11

Photosynthesis

Energy from sunlight is absorbed by pigments and transformed into organic molecules

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12

essential requirements for photosynthesis

  1. Carbon Dioxide (CO2),

  2. Water (H2O),

  3. Light Energy

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13

products of photosynthesis

  1. Glucose (sugar)

  2. Oxygen Gas (O2)

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14

What organelle performs photosynthesis?

the chloroplast

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15

leaf cuticle

waxy non-cellular layer on the outer surface of the plant prevents water loss also provides a light layer of protection

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16

epidermis

Outermost layer of cells in the leaf Upper and Lower epidermis Contains NO chloroplasts

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17

palisade layer

Contains the greatest number of chloroplasts Where most photosynthesis takes place Long axis is perpendicular to leaf surface

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18

spongy layer

Loosely packed region of leaf cell Contains some chloroplasts Contains lots of open space for air Allows gases to pass freely into the interior of the plant

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19

Stomata

 Openings on the leaf surface through which air passes to the interior of the plant  Usually on the bottom of the leaf ◼ Protects against bacteria and fungi from entering leaf

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20

guard cells

 Specialized epidermal cells that occur in pairs on leaf surfaces  Regulate opening into leaf interior  Each stomata has 2 guard cells

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21

How does gas enter a leaf?

through the stomata

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22

metabolism

• COLLECTION OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS THAT OCCUR IN AN ORGANISM THAT ARE NECESSARY TO MAINTAIN LIFE • CONSTRUCTION & BREAKDOWN OF MOLECULES • USUALLY FACILITATED BY ENZYMES • MEASURED IN TERMS OF OXYGEN CONSUMPTION Depends on body mass and thermal strategy

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23

oxygen consumption

• “REGULAR” =ML/MIN • WEIGHT-SPECIFIC = ML/G/MIN

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24

metabolism increases...

WITH TEMPERATURE IN ECTOTHERMS TO A POINT, THEN drops

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25

ectotherm

an animal that is dependent on its environment for body temperature (fish, amphibians, reptiles, invertebrates)

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26

Factors that affect metabolic rate

  1. THERMAL STRATEGY • PREDICTIONS ARE DIFFERENT FOR ECTO- AND ENDOTHERMS

  2. BODY MASS

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27

Oxygen consumption =

metabolic rate

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28

spiracle

a breathing orifice located on the outside of the body on an insect

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29

trachea

tubes on the inside of the insects body

<p>tubes on the inside of the insects body</p>
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30

what do insect lungs do?

• distribute oxygen to body • take carbon dioxide away

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31

How are insect lungs different than human lungs?

gasses diffuse between trachea and individual cells

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32

Where does oxygen exchange happen in humans?

BETWEEN ALVEOLI (IN THE LUNGS) AND BLOOD FOR CIRCULATION THROUGHOUT THE BODY

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33

alveoli

tiny air filled sacs in the lungs

<p>tiny air filled sacs in the lungs</p>
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34

bronchiole

any of the smallest bronchial ducts; ending in alveoli

<p>any of the smallest bronchial ducts; ending in alveoli</p>
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35

bronchi

any of the major air passages of the lungs which diverge from the windpipe.

<p>any of the major air passages of the lungs which diverge from the windpipe.</p>
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36

trachea

The airway that leads from the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi

<p>The airway that leads from the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi</p>
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37

diaphragm

a muscular partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities; functions in respiration

<p>a muscular partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities; functions in respiration</p>
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38

epiglottis

a flap of cartilage that covers the windpipe while swallowing

<p>a flap of cartilage that covers the windpipe while swallowing</p>
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39

endotherm

body temperature independent from environment

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40

Advantage of ectotherms

requires less energy

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41

Disadvantage of ectotherms

cannot survive at extreme temperatures

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42

Advantage of endotherms

can live anywhere

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43

Disadvantage of endotherms

extremely costly- have to eat a lot

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44

relationship between metabolic rate and body size

when mass increases, metabolic rate usually increases

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45

Order of organs for breathing

Nose, esophagus, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, capillaries

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46

What is exhaled when breathing?

CO2

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47

What is inhaled when breathing?

O2

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48

Mitosis

cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

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49

Interphase

the resting phase between successive mitotic divisions of a cell, or between the first and second divisions of meiosis.

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50

Prophase

chromosomes become visible as paired chromatids and the nuclear envelope disappears

<p>chromosomes become visible as paired chromatids and the nuclear envelope disappears</p>
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51

Metaphase

chromosomes become attached to the spindle fibers and line up in the center of the cell

<p>chromosomes become attached to the spindle fibers and line up in the center of the cell</p>
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52

Anaphase

chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle

<p>chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle</p>
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53

Telophase

cell begins to divide

<p>cell begins to divide</p>
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54

Cytokinesis

organic process consisting of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell bringing about the separation into two daughter cells

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55

Cleavage furrow

indentation of the cell's surface that begins the progression of division

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56

Cytokinesis in animal cells

cell division that partitions the cellular organelles and cytoplasm of one cell into two.

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57

Cytokinesis in plant cells

involves the formation and insertion of a new cell wall that separates daughter nuclei after mitosis

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58

Diploid cell

all cells are diploid (have two copies) other than the four daughter cells resulted from meiosis

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59

Homologous chromosome

Two chromosomes in a pair – normally one inherited from the mother and one from the father

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60

Haploid cell

contains only one copy of the chromosome

<p>contains only one copy of the chromosome</p>
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61

Meiosis

cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms

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62

Phases of meiosis

prophase (I & II), metaphase (I & II), anaphase (I & II), and telophase (I & II).

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63

Prophase II

the chromosomes condense, and a new set of spindle fibers forms

<p>the chromosomes condense, and a new set of spindle fibers forms</p>
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64

Metaphase II

the centromeres of the paired chromatids align along the equatorial plate in both cells

<p>the centromeres of the paired chromatids align along the equatorial plate in both cells</p>
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65

Anaphase II

sister chromatids of every chromosome separate and begin to move towards the opposite ends of the cell

<p>sister chromatids of every chromosome separate and begin to move towards the opposite ends of the cell</p>
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66

Telophase II

The cells pinch in the center and divide again. The final outcome is four cells, each with half of the genetic material found in the original

<p>The cells pinch in the center and divide again. The final outcome is four cells, each with half of the genetic material found in the original</p>
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67

Mitosis vs. Meiosis

Mitosis forms two daughter cells that are somatic. Meiosis forms four daughter cells with half of the amount of DNA and are gametes (sex cells)

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68

Genotype

The genetic description of an individual (e.g. BB, Bb, bb)

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69

Phenotype

The physical appearance of an individual (e.g. blue, brown eyes)

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70

Phenotypic ratio

a quantitative relation between phenotypes showing the number of times the frequency of one phenotype correlates with another.

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71

What phenotypic ratio does a monohybrid cross always result in?

3:1

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72

What phenotypic ratio does a dihybrid cross always result in?

9:3:3:1

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73

Pedigree

shows the occurrence and appearance of phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next

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