Biology Unit 2 | Cells, Organelles, and Microscopes

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Nucleus (P)(A)(Pr)


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Nucleolus (P)(A)(Pr)

Found inside the nucleus and produces ribosomes

Chromatin (P)(A)

Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell

Golgi Apparatus (P)(A)(Pr)

A system that modifies and transports proteins and lipids

Cytoplapsm (P)(A)(B)

A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended.

Vacuole (animal has many small, plant has one large) (Pr)

Organelle that stores materials like water, salt, proteins, and carbohydrates

Smooth ER (P)(A)(Pr)

Section of the endoplasmic reticulum that does NOT have ribosomes.

Rough ER (P)(A)(Pr)

Section of the endoplasmic reticulum that has ribosomes

Lysosome (A)

Cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell

DNA (P)(A)(B)

genetic material

Chromosomes (P)(A)(B)

Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes

Chloroplast (P)(B)(Pr)

An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs

Ribosomes (P)(A)(B)(Pr)

Makes proteins

Microfilaments (P)(A)(Pr)

Thin fibers that make up the cilia, flagella, and spindle fibers.

Microtubules (P)(A)

Thick tubes that function in the movement and support of the cell

Mitochondria (P)(A)

Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production

Cell membrane (P)(A)(B)(Pr)

A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.

Cell wall (P)

strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane

Flagella (A)(B)(Pr)

whiplike tails in cells to help with movement

Cilia (P)(A)(Pr)

The hairlike projections on the outside of cells that move in a wavelike manner

Cytoskeleton (P)(A)(B)

network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement

Centrioles (A)

2 cylinders that migrate to other sides of nucleus during division


A cell that has a nucleus (eu/do)


A cell that does not have a nucleus (pro/no)

Specialized cell

A cell that is uniquely suited to performing a particular function

Muscle Cell (mitochondria)

The myosin binds into the actin and changes shape. This causes the thick and thin to slide past each other. The myosin returns to it's normal state, and binds to the actin again. The sequence is repeated.

Neuron Cell (cell membrane, vesicles)

Vesicles are being transported out of the cell membrane, thus releasing neurotransmitters to other cells.

Sperm Cell (cytoskeleton, mitochondria)

The microtubules swing back and forth while the base of the flagella stays still, propelling the sperm cell, like a fish's tail fin. Without the extra mobility provided by the flagella, the sperm wouldn't be able to reach the egg cell and cause fertilization.

Intestinal Cell (cell membrane)

It absorbs the nutrients from the intestinal lumen and transports them into the bloodstream.

Pancreatic Cell (nucleus, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, cell membrane, ER)

Insulin is synthesized. It then goes into the Golgi apparatus, gets processed, and gets transported to the vesicle.

Macrophage Cell (vesicle, lysosomes, cell membrane)

The phagocyte immobilizes any potential threats to the organism.

Red Blood Cell

Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body cells. Shaped smoothly to fit through capillaries.

White Blood Cell

White blood cells fight disease. Shaped rigidly to absorb the bacterium.

Eye piece

Magnifies the image, usually 10x

Low power objective

Further magnifies the image, up to 4x

High power objectives

further magnifies the image, from 10x to 43x


Holds the objectives and can be turned to change from one objective to another

Body Tube

Maintains the proper distance between the eyepiece and the objectives

Coarse adjustment

Moves the body tube up and down fin large increments or focusing

Fine adjustment

Moves the body tube slightly to bring the image into sharp focus


Supports the slide

Stage clips

Secures the slide


Controls the amount of light that passes through the object

Light Source

Provides light for viewing the image


Supports the body tube


Supports the microscope

Robert Hooke

Discovered cells in a cork

Tuberculosis (made up of)

Mycobacterium, bacteria cell

Malaria (made up of)

plasmodium parasite, protist cell


Process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment