Period 5 Part I Vocab - APUSH

studied byStudied by 72 People

Manifest destiny


Tags & Description

US History

Studying Progress

New cards
Still learning
Almost Done
41 Terms

Manifest destiny

the popular belief that the United States had a divine mission to extend its power and civilization across North America

Mexican-American War “Alamo”

A Mexican army led by Santa Anna captured the town of Goliad and attacked the ___ in San Antonio; this killed every one of its American defenders; reinvigorated the slavery issue

*Bear Flag Republic

an independent republic founded by taken from Mexican rule by John C. Frémont; named after the state flag

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

treaty negotiated by diplomat Nicolas Trist with Mexico; ended the Mexican-American War; Mexico recognized the Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas; US took possession of CA and NM

Mexican Cession

US took former Mexican provinces CA and NM; US paid 15 mill for this land and assumed any American claims against Mexico post-war

Wilmot Proviso

the proposal that a bill is amended to forbid slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico; was passed by the House (north adv.) but defeated in Senate (southern adv.)

Gadsden Purchase

a small strip of land acquired from Mexico in 1853 for 10 mil; bought for railroad development through the region; part of modern-day NM and AZ

Free-Soil Party

formed by Northerners who opposed allowing slavery in the territory acquired from the Mexican Cession; some saw the land as an opportunity for Whites only (keeping out both enslaved and free African-Americans)

Popular Sovereignty

the approach to solve the issue of allowing slavery or not in the new territory; instead of congress determining the fate of the land, the people who are settling the territory get to vote; “squatter sovereignty”

Compromise of 1850

another compromise formulated by Henry Clay; dealing with slavery in the gained land from the Mexican Cession; admit Cali as a free state, divide the rest of the Mexican Cession into Utah and New Mexico and leave them to popular sovereignty; ban slave trade in D.C but allow the owning of slaves as previous; adopt a new Fugitive Slave Law and enforce it rigorously

Panic of 1857

caused a sharp decrease in the prices for Midwestern agricultural products and a sharp increase in unemployment in the Northern cities; cotton prices were still high (south not as affected) → southerners bragged about how plantation economy was superior to the North (“we don’t need the North econ”)


hostility towards immigrants due to the sudden influx of them; fear of taking American jobs and opportunities; most immis were catholic vs the protestant peeps in 'merca

*Tammany Hall

the NYC’s Democratic organization; Irish were excluded at first but then gained influence and control

Fugitive Slave Law

drove a wedge between the North and the South; part of Clay’s plan for the Compromise of 1850; track down enslaved people who have escaped elsewhere; law officials were required to enforce the law; anyone who tried to help fugitives → heavy penalties; resented by North

Uncle Tom’s Cabin

the most influential book of its day written about the conflict between an enslaved man and his brutal White slave owner; published by Harriet Beecher Stowe; more ppl viewed slavery as cruel and unhuman; southerners claimed that the novel had several “untruths”

“Bleeding Kansas”

violent outbreaks between the anti-slavery and pro-slavery groups in this territory

Pottawatomie Creek

an attack on a proslavery farm led by John Brown (abolitionist) retaliating against the attacks by proslavery forces; killed 5

Kansas-Nebraska Act

a bill proposed by Stephan Douglass to divide the Nebraska Territory into two parts (Kansas and Nebraska territories) and allow the settlers decision on slavery; this repeals the Missouri Comp, and despite popular sovereignty working in other locations, this leads to a series of outbreaks between the anti and proslavery groups

Know-Nothing Party

a party formed by people who were frightened by the sudden immigration to the US; won a few local/state elections, but the immigration issue was overshadowed by abolitionism and the party dissolved

Republican Party

former Whigs who opposed slavery expansion formed this; formed in reaction to the Kansas-Nebraska Act; oppose the spread of slavery into territories NOT abolish it altogether; very much a sectional party (only north)

Dred Scott v. Sanford

an enslaved man argued that since he stepped foot and lived in the free territory → a free man; Supreme Court ruled that 1) he wasn’t even supposed to use the Federal Court system because the Framers didn’t view African Americans as citizens 2) he was technically “property” so the Court was not supposed to deprive any person of their property 3) the Missouri Comp was unconstitutional because it deprived slavery from new states and territories; pleased southerners and ENRAGED northerners

Lincoln-Douglass debates

heated debates between two candidates for the Illinois state legislature; Lincoln was virtually unknown compared to Stephan Douglass, yet he had a lasting impact based on his viewpoints and attacks on his opponent; though Douglass won the election, Lincoln raised many questions about Douglass’s morals bc of his responses to slavery and the Dred Scott case

Sumner-Brooks Incident

Senator Sumner (MA) was attacking the Democratic admin and had personal charges against Senator Andrew Butler; Butler’s nephew, Preston Brooks, defended his uncle’s honor by walking into the Senate chamber and beating Sumner over the head repeatedly with a Cane → outraged the north, southerners applauded him (brooks)

Harpers Ferry

an uprising of enslaved ppl led by John Brown (radical abolitionist) in Virginia; the plan was to raid the fed arsenal at this place and use those weapons to arm the enslaved Virginians; Brown and six of his followers were caught and convicted and hung

Constitutional Union Party

pledged the enforcement of the laws and the Constitution, and above all, the preservation of the Union

Crittenden Compromise

the proposal of a constitutional amendment that would guarantee the right to hold slaves in all territories south of the 36°30’; Lincoln couldn’t accept the compromise bc it violated the Republican standpoint against the spread of slavery; southerners thought the “Northern Rule” was tyrannic and voted for secession (1776 styles)

John Tyler

took over office after Harrison croaked; didn’t do much for the improvement of America, yet even though he was a Whig candidate, he vetoed many of the acts and bills that supported that party

James K. Polk

In determining the democratic representative during the Election of 1844, this person was a lesser known candidate; committed to the ideas of expansion and manifest destiny; in favor of the annexation of Texas, the “reoccupation” of all of Oregon, and the acquisition of Cali

Stephan Austin

founded the first American settlement in Texas; in 1833 this person was sent by colonists to negotiate w/ Mex. gov. for Texan independence

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

a general in Mex. who made himself the dictator of Mex.; led the Mexican attack on the Alamo; was later defeated by Sam Houston during a different battle

Matthew C. Perry

helped US expand trade to Asia; pressured the Japanese gov. To sign the Kanagawa Treaty that allowed US vessels to enter two Japanese ports to take on coal; furthering the relationship between the US and Japan

*Zachary Taylor

captured northern Mexico in the war (major general in the war); was the last Whig pres elected in 1848; took no position on the slave debate

Henry Clay

attempted to heal the rift between the north/south by formulating the Compromise of 1850; delayed the Civil War

Harriet Tubman

a famous conductor of the underground railroad; a woman that escaped slavery herself; made at least 19 trips into the South to help nearly 300 people escape enslavement

Harriet Beecher Stowe

an abolitionist author from the north that persuaded many to abhor the nature of slavery; wrote the famous Uncle Tom’s Cabin

Stephan Douglass

proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act and popularized popular sovereignty

Franklin Pierce

another dark horse, democratic candidate; a northerner who was pro-southerner; supported the compromise of 1850, especially the fugitive slave law

*Millard Fillmore

VP who took over after Pres John Taylor died (guess he didn’t shake it off); signed a series of bills and laws and sent Perry to Japan

James Buchanan

elected 1856; attempted to maintain balance between the proslavery and antislavery factions; his moderate views on slavery angered radicals in both the North and South

Roger Taney

a southern democrat who was the Court’s chief justice; decided the fate of the Dred Scott case; very racist and pretty awful guy yikes

Abraham Lincoln

put into the spotlight with his debates against Stephen Douglass’s campaigns for Senator, this man advocated for the equal rights of African Americans; issued the emancipation proclamation/set in motion the Civil war but sought to preserve the Union