Social Psychology

studied byStudied by 47 People

social psychology


encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

Studying Progress

New cards
Still learning
Almost Done
85 Terms

social psychology

how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

social influence

the effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behavior

social cognition

how people think about themselves and the social world

person perception

the process of forming impressions of others

3 interpersonal components

(1) our context, (2) our self-perceptions, and (3) the perceptions we have of others

attribution theory

we attribute behavior to someone's personality (dispositional rational) or to a reaction to a situation (situational rationale)

fundamental attribution error

in explaining other people's behavior, we have the tendency to overemphasize personality traits and underestimate situational factors

self-serving bias

individualistic cultures; taking credit for your own success and blaming others for their failures

self-effacing bias

collectivist cultures; giving the group credit for their success and blaming themselves for their failure

actor-observer bias

people are likely to attribute others' actions to internal factors but unlikely to do the same for themselves

relative deprivation

the perception that you are worse off than the people you compare yourself to

saliency bias

focusing on the most noticeable (salient) factors when explaining the causes of behavior

central route to persuasion

occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts

peripheral route to persuasion

occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness

rule of commitment

tendency to feel psychological and interpersonal pressures to behave consistently with a prior public commitment


tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later to a larger request

low-ball technique

strategy to gain compliance by having an attractive initial offer to get someone to agree, then later make terms less favorable

bait and switch

gets people to commit to a general course of action by getting them to accept a deal they would have rejected if it had been offered first

rule of reciprocity

the obligation to return a favor


tendency for people who say no to a huge request to comply with a smaller one

that's not all technique

strategy to make an offer and improve it

cognitive dissonance (Leon Festinger)

when actions and attitudes don't line up, we feel tension and discomfort that causes us to change either our actions or our attitudes in order to reduce that dissonance

overjustification effect

receiving extrinsic motivation for something you were intrinsically motivated to do

Stanford Prison experiment (Philip Zimbardo)

proved people's behavior depends to a large extent on the roles that are asked to play

chameleon effect

we unconsciously mimic others' expressions, postures, and voice tones, which helps us feel what they are feeling

mirror neurons

frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or observing another person doing so; helps enable imitation and empathy


adjusting an individual's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard when there is pressure to do so

conformity experiment (Soloman Asch)

3/4 of participants conformed at least one, 1/3 of the students went along with the group the entire time

conditions that strengthen conformity

-one is made to feel incompetent or insecure -the group has at least 3 people -the group is unanimous -one admires the group's status and attractiveness -the individual says the answer verbally -the group observes the individual's behavior; -the culture strongly encourages respect for social standards

normative social influence

influence from a person's desire for acceptance or to gain approval or avoid rejection

informational social influence

influence from a person's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality (facts and useful and crucial information provided by other people)

obedience (Stanley Milgram)

demonstrated that blind obedience to authority could override moral conscience; 2/3 of subjects complied fully up to 450 (max) volts; ethical problems: deception during the experiment and psychological harm

group influence

ways in which group members influence attitudes, behaviors, and opinions of others within the group

social facilitation

stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others

social inhibition

the tendency to perform complex or difficult tasks more poorly in the presence of others

social loafing

people exert less effort when working in a group than when they are alone

social striving

people exert more effort when working in a group than when they are alone


abandoning self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal or anonymity

group polarization

if a group is like-minded, discussion strengthens its prevailing opinions


the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives

cultural influence

how culture and norms affect the way we act, speak, and thinking


behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next


rules for accepted and expected behavior

personal space

buffer zone we like to maintain around our body

social control

attempts by society to regulate people's thoughts and behavior

personal control

our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless

minority influence

the power of one or two individuals to sway majorities

reactance theory

we react against threats to our freedoms by reasserting those freedoms, often by doing the opposite of what we are being pressured to do


a negative attitude toward an entire category of people, often an ethnic or racial minority