Unit 3: Molecules and Cells

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Biochemistry

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39 Terms
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Biochemistry

Molecules involved with cells; essentials to life from a chemical perspective

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Organic Compounds

Contain carbon, mostly covalently bonded(ex. Glucose)

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Inorganic Compounds

Lack carbon, simpler compounds

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Important Inorganic Compounds

Water: Vital Properties, High heat capacity, solvent, chemical reactivity, cushioning

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Salts

Easily disassociate into ions in the presence of water, vital to many body functions (sending messages, maintaining cell pressure, etc.

Includes electrolytes; most plentiful are calcium and phosphorus

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Acids

Can release detectable hydrogen ions(protein donor)

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Base

Can release hydroxide ion (proton acceptor)

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Important Organic Compunds

Carbohydrates, lipids, protein, nucleic acids, ATP

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Carbohydrates

CHO(Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen) Includes sugar and starches Classified by size

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monosaccharide

Simple sugar

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Disaccarides

two single sugar joined by dehydration synthesis

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polysaccharides

Long branching chains of linked simple sugars

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Lipids

CHO(Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen) Carbon and Hydrogen outnumber oxygen Insoluble in water

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Triglycerides(neutral fats),

Type of Lipid Found in fat deposits Composed of fatty acids and glycerol Source of Stored energy

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Phospholipids

Form cell membranes

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Steroids

Includes cholesterol, bile salts, vitamin D, and some hormones

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Cholesterol

Basis for all steroids

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Protein

CHON(Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen), and sometimes sulfur Made of Amino Acids Accounts for over 1/2 of the body's organic matter Provides for construction materials for body tissues (fibrous & structural) Vital in cell function(Act as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies)

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Nucleic Acids

CHONP(Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus) Provides a blueprint for life Nucleotide bases- Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil(RNA) Makes DNA and RNA

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Adenosine Triphosphate(ATP)

Derivative of nucleotide Chemical energy used by all cells Energy is released by breaking high-energy phosphate bonds Energy is replenished by the oxidation of food fuels

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Anatomy of the cell

-Cells are organized into their main regions: Nucleus, cytoplasm, and Plasma membrane

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Functions

Nucleus: Controls cell Cytoplasm: determines the transport Plasma Membrane: restricts/allows movement

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Plasma Membrane

A barrier for all contents Double phospholipid layer: Hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail Contains Protein, cholesterol, and glycoprotein

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Cytoplasm

Material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane Cytosol: Fluid that suspends other elements Organelles: Metabolic machinery of the cell Inclusions: Non-functioning units

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Solutions

A homogeneous mixture of two or more components Solvent: dissolving medium (usually water) Solutes: Components within a solution (ex. ions, Na+, Cl-)

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Intracellular fluid

fluid inside of the cell such as nucleoplasm and cytosol (Intra=within)

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extracellular fluid(interstitial)

Fluid on the exterior of the cell (extra=beyond), (inter-between)

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Membrane transport

Movement of a substance into and out of the cell

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Selectively Permeable

Allows some substances to pass through while excluding others

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Entrance factors

  1. Size-huge molecules can't go through

  2. Polarity: Extremely polar molecules can't pass through the nonpolar lipid tails of the cell membrane

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Passive Transport

Relies on a concentration gradient -the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to a region of low concentration -No energy is required

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Types of passive transport

Diffusion(simple) Osmosis Facilitated diffusion Filtration-pressure gradient

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Diffusion

Movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration -Requires no energy expended by the cell -Molecules will reach a state of equilibrium

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Osmosis

Diffusion of water molecules through a cell membrane

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Facilitated Diffusion

Still passive diffusion; no energy expended by the cell Uses the concentration gradient (high to low concentration) to move large particles, polar molecules and ions

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Active Transport

Low to High Requires the use of energy (ATP)

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Types of Active Transport

Solute pumps (ex. Na+/K+ pump)

Bulk Transport: -Exocytosis(exo=out) -Endocytosis(endo=in)

Phagocytosis

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Exocytosis

(exo=out of the cell) Used for big particles

  1. Wraps around particle in a vesicle

  2. Merge it with a cell membrane

  3. Spit it outside the cell

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Endocytosis

(endo=into the cell) 2 types 1st Phagocytosis: Solid particles Pinocytosis: For fluids

  1. Cell comes and engulfs the particle

  2. Wraps its membrane around the particle

2nd Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

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