Motivation Exam 3 (Ch. 10-12)

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Attribution Theory

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101 Terms

1

Attribution Theory

A collection of theories concerning factors assumed by the general public to cause people's behavior

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Dispositions

Internal (often stable) characteristics, such as personality

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Naïve Psychology

The average person doesn't know much about psychology research and theories, but still tried to figure out why people behave the way they do

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Dispositional (Internal) Attributions

Abilities, motives, intention, and exertion

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Intention

The cognitive plan to behave in a particular way

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Exertion

The amount of effort that one is willing to put into the behavior

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Situational (External) Attributions

Task difficulty, luck

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Fundamental Attribution Error

The tendency to attribute behavior to stable, internal characteristics

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9

Distinctiveness

The degree to which the behavior is unique within the individual across different situations

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10

Consensus

We examine other people's behavior in the same situation

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11

Consistency

The frequency with which the actor engages in the specific behavior in question

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12

Stability

Relative permanence of the source of success or failure

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13

Locus

The "location" of the source of success or failure

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14

Controllability

How much someone (not necessarily you) can influence there source of success or failure

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15

Ability

Internal, Stable, and Uncontrollable

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Effort

Internal, Unstable, and Controllable

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Task Difficulty

External, Stable, and Controllable

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Luck

External, Unstable, and Uncontrollable

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19

Fundamental Attribution Error

Tendency to overemphasize stable internal factors as attributions for behavior and underestimate the power of the situation

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Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE) 4 Factors:

(According to Gilbert and Malone)

  1. Situation perception

  2. Behavioral expectation

  3. Behavior perception

  4. Attribution, with or without correction

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Actor-Observer Bias

The tendency to think that other people's behaviors are due to dispositional (internal) factors and our own behaviors are due to situational (external) forces

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22

Self-Serving Bias

Tendency for individuals to take credit by making dispositional or internal attributions for their own positive outcomes, and situational or external attributions for their own negative outcomes

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23

False Consensus Effect

Our tendency to believe that most other people think and act the same way that we do

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24

Mastery Orientation

Those who tend to set challenging goals for themselves in order to increase competence

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25

Helpless Orientation

Those who avoid challenging goals and tend to give up easily

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Entity Theorists

View themselves and others as acting on the basis of fixed traits (fixed mindset)

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Incremental Theorists

View themselves and others as acting on the basis of malleable traits (growth mindset)

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Growth Mindset

People are good at things because they worked hard to become good at them

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29

Fixed Mindset

People are good at things because they are born with natural abilities

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30

Role Theory

People may act passively if that is what is expected of them (or what they think is expected of them) in their role

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31

Actualizing Tendency

The striving for wholeness and to become fully functioning

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32

Positive Regard

Comes from others

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33

Positive Self-Regard

Comes from ourselves

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34

Unconditional Positive Regard

A person is accepted and loved regardless of behavior

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35

Conditional Positive Regard

A person is made to feel they are worthwhile only if they behave in certain ways

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36

The Fully Functioning Individual

Openness to experience, Existential living, Trust in one's own organism, Sense of freedom, and Creativity

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37

Peak Experience

A short but intense feeling of awe or exactas often accompanied by a sense of fulfillment, insight, and oneness with something larger than one's self

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38

Time Competence

The self-actualized person appears to live in the present but can meaningfully tie past or future events to the present

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39

Peak Performance

An episode of superior functioning

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40

Flow

An intrinsically enjoyable experience

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41

Absorption

An individual intensely focuses attention to the exclusion of other perceptual events (common to peak performance, peak experience, and flow)

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42

Physiological Arousal

How the body responds to something and how intensely it responds

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43

Psychological Appraisal

Interpretation of the even, informed by experiences, backgrounds, and culture

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44

Subjective Experiences

Personal experiences of emotion; In a way, this is the most like the "feeling" part

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The James-Lange Theory

Asserts that subjective emotional experiences arises from physiological arousal

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Cannon-Bard Theory

Physiological arousal and subjective emotional experience occur simultaneously, but independently

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47

Schacter-Singer Two-Factor Theory

Emotions consist of two factors--physiological and cognitive

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48

Lazarus' Cognitive-Mediational Theory

Asserts that our emotions are determined by our appraisal of the stimulus

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49

Hypothalamus

Plays a role in the activation of the sympathetic nervous system

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50

Thalamus

Sensory relay center

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51

Amygdala

Plays a role in processing emotional information

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Hippocampus

Integrates emotional experience with cognition/memories

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53

Basolateral Complex

(Inside the amygdala) Critical for classical conditioning and attaching emotional value to memory

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Central Nucleus

(Inside the amygdala) Involved in attention

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55

Effectance Motivation

Striving for competence

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56

Origin

Someone who believes that our behavior is controlled by our own choices

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57

Pawn

Someone who believes that our behavior is controlled by external forces over which we have no control

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58

Human Agency

The capacity to exercise control over the nature and quality of one's life

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Reciprocal Causation

Our behavior, environment, and personal factors influence each other

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60

Four Core Features of Human Agency

  1. Intentionality

  2. Forethought

  3. Self-reactiveness

  4. Self-reflectiveness ^ Self-efficacy: how successful we perceive ourselves to be at attaining the goals we set for ourselves

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61

Personal Agency

Includes Bandura's Four Core Features of Human Agency; Is concerned with agency from the perspective of an individual

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62

Proxy Agency

Taking advantage of another's area of expertise and letting someone with more expertise

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63

Collective Agency

The ability of groups to accomplish more than can be done by the same number of individuals working alone (provided that they work together and share the belief that they can achieve their goal)

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64

Desi & Ryan's Self-Determination Theory

Postulates three basic needs that all humans innately strive to satisfy: 1.) Competence - refers to our need to have some control over our environment (similar to Bandura's concept of agency) 2.) Relatedness - our need to feel a sense of belongingness with others 3.) Autonomy - our need to freely integrate our experiences with our sense of self

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65

Intrinsic Motivation

The value or pleasure associated with an activity as opposed to the goal toward which the activity is directed

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Extrinsic Motivation

Emphasizes the external goal towards which the activity is directed

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67

Hedonia

Pleasures

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68

Eudaimonia

Gratifications

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69

Mindfulness

Focusing one's attention on the moment rather than engaging in a pleasure-inducing activity automatically or reflexively

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70

Positive Virtues

Six core qualities that Seligman believed to be valued intrinsically (Wisdom, Courage, Humanity, Justice, Temperance, and Transcendence)

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Positive Individual Traits / Strengths

Traits people can have that can be exercised to help an individual to develop virtues

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Positive Institutions

Develop when individuals use their strengths in the service of the greater good

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73

Fundamental Attribution Error

The tendency to attribute behavior to stable, internal characteristics has been called:

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74

The unique components of behavior

According to Jones and Davis, attributions usually are formed by observing:

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75

Attribution Independent

In Weiner's attribution theory, achievement-related results initially produce _______ affect, in which the outcome itself triggers happiness or sadness, depending on success or failure.

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76

Fixed mindset; growth mindset

Rachel and Krystal decide to take a painting class together. On the first day of class, both of them are really bad at painting and they find doing the painting techniques to be really difficult. Rachel gets discouraged and quits the class after the first day, because she thinks that because she's really bad now, that means she's naturally bad at art and she'll never be able to be a good artist. Krystal stays in the class because she knows that even though she is bad at painting now, she will get better if she persists and tries hard. Rachel has a(n) _______________ and Krystal has a(n) _______________.

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77

Actor-Observer Bias

When Annalise is late for class, Max attributes her lateness to not caring about school or doing well in class. However, when Max is late for class, he attributes his own lateness to the heavy traffic and bad drivers. This is an example of:

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78

Mastery; Helpless

In achievement attribution studies, Diener and Dweck (1978) suggest that individuals with a(n) ______ orientation set challenging goals, and individuals with a(n) ______ orientation avoid challenging goals.

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79

False Consensus Effect

In attribution, the tendency to believe that most other people think and act the same way that we do is called the:

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80

Hedonic relevance

All of the following principles of attribution have been proposed by Kelley EXCEPT:

  • Covariation

  • Hedonic relevance

  • Distinctiveness

  • Consensus

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81

Task Difficulty

Which of the following terms is associated with situational influences rather than dispositional influences?

  • Intention

  • Locus

  • Ability

  • Task Difficulty

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82

Self-Serving Bias

In attribution, the tendency to take credit for one's own success and to avoid responsibility for failure is called the:

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83

Unconditional Positive Regard

Rogers's idea that a person is accepted and loved regardless of behavior is called:

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84

Higher-level needs will not be tended to until lower-level needs are fairly adequately satisfied

According to Maslow:

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85

The person focuses attention on the experience or is absorbed by the experience

Peak experiences, peak performance, and flow are concepts that share some characteristics, although differing in others. Which of the following is the common quality shared by each of these events that is mentioned in the text?

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86

Self-Actualization

Kenrick and colleagues (2010) have proposed a reformulated needs hierarchy. Which one of Maslow's needs did they NOT include in their theory?

  • Safety

  • Self-Actualization

  • Esteem

  • Physiological Needs

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87

Competence

Robert White (1959) defined _______ as the capacity to interact effectively with one's environment.

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88

Internal and external locus of control

deCharms's concepts of "origins" and "pawns" are really similar to something that we've already learned about in this class, in a previous chapter. Which pairing of concepts that we previously learned about is most similar to the concepts of origins and pawns?

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89

Maya will start to enjoy the topic LESS, because she is now doing it for an external goal

Maya is working on her dissertation, which for her basically means writing an approximately 100 page paper about the scientific literature and her project, giving a presentation, and having a group of professors critique her project in front of her. She is doing this so she can obtain a PhD. When she picked her topic, the topic was something that she was really interested in and super passionate about, and she would spend time researching it just because she enjoyed it. When considering Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory and the sources of motivation, which of the following is the most likely to occur while Maya is working on her dissertation?

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90

Positive outlooks

Which one of the following is NOT one of Seligman's aspects of human functioning?

  • Positive institutions

  • Positive individual traits and virtues

  • Positive outlooks

  • Positive enmotions

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91

Physiological and safety needs

The first two stages in Maslow's hierarchy of needs are:

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92

Reciprocal Causation

In Bandura's theory, the complex interplay between behavior, cognition, and environmental factors is called:

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93

Sadness, fear, anger, disgust, contempt, happiness, and surprise

The seven universal emotions are:

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94

The James-Lange Theory

Which theory of emotion asserts that subjective emotional experience arises from physiological arousal?

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95

The Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory

Which theory of emotion asserts that emotions consist of physiological arousal and cognitive labeling of physiological arousal?

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96

Lazarus's Cognitive-Mediational Theory

Which theory of emotion asserts that our emotions are determined by our appraisal of the stimulus, and the physiological response comes after the subjective emotional experience?

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97

Amygdala

The ____________ integrates emotional experience with cognition/memories:

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98

Amygdala

The basolateral complex (which is part of the ___________) is critical for classical conditioning and attaching emotional value to memory

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99

Can be learned through the observation of others

According to Bandura, emotionality:

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100

The facial feedback hypothesis

The idea that our movements allow us to experience particular emotions is called:

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