MICROBIO EXAM 1 REVIEW

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Spontaneous generation

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Biology

103 Terms

1

Spontaneous generation

Life arose from no living matter

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2

Biogenesis

Life is made from preexisting cells

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3

Robert hook

Cells, cell theory

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4

John Tyndall

Discovered Endospores

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5

Joseph lister

Father of antiseptic surgery

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6

Edward Jenner

Technique of vaccines, prevent smallpox

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7

Hess

Use of agar

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8

Petri

Developed Petri dish

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9

Fleming

Penicillin

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10

Ehrilich

Treatment of syphilis, arsenic

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11

Semmelweis

Hand disinfection

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12

Needham

Tested SG, but did not boil

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13

Sallazani

Testes SG, sealed and boiled

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14

Pasteur

Swan neck flask

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15

Leeuwenhoek

Single lens microscope

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16

Postulates

Take sample then streak and if colonize inject into animal

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17

Binomial nomenclature

Genus species

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18

Carlous Linnaeus

Developed taxonomy system

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19

3 domains

Bacteria, archaea, eukarya

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20

Classification

Placing organism in a group of related species

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21

Identification

Matching characteristics of an unknown to a list of known

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22

Levels of classification

Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

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23

Bacteriology

Bacteria/archaea

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24

phycology

Algae

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25

protozoology

Protozoa

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26

Parasitology

Parasitic Protozoa/animal

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27

Virology

Viruses

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28

Serology

Antibodies in bloodstream

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29

Immunology

Bodies defense with disease

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30

Epidemiology

Disease

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31

Etiology

Cause of disease

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32

Eukaryotic cells

Nucleus with DNA, membrane bound organelles, compartmentalized cytoplasm, and perform specialized functions

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33

Prokaryotic cells

No nucleus or other membrane bound organelles

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34

Coccus

Round

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35

Bacillus

Rod

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36

Vibro

Curved rod

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37

coccobacillus

Short rod

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38

spirillum

Spiral

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39

Spirochete

Long and loose

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40

Streptococcus

Chain of cocci

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41

Staphylococcus

Cluster of cocci

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42

Prokaryotic cytoplasm

Factory area

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43

Prokaryotic Ribosome

Protein synthesis (70s)

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44

Prokaryotic Plasmid

Genetic engineering

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45

Prokaryotic Inclusions

Used when environmental sources are depleted

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46

Prokaryotic Chromosome

Genetic information

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47

Prokaryotic

Network of proteins associated with the cell wall

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48

Exocytosis

Releasing things to the exterior

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49

Endocytosis

Bringing substances into the cell

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50

Pinocytosis

Ingest liquid

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51

Phagocytosis

Ingest substances

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52

Gram-positive

Cell membrane and peptidoglycan layer

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53

Gram-negative

Outer membrane, cell membrane, cell wall with think peptidoglycan layer

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54

Peptidoglycan

Recreating framework of macromolecules

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55

Penicillin

Weakens bacteria cell causing to to burst

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56

No typical bacterial cell walls

Mycobacterium and mycoplasma

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57

Mycobacterium

Gram-positive with lipid mycolic acid

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58

What is mycobacterium the basis for

Acid fast chain

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59

Mycoplasma

No cell wall

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60

Mutualism

BN/BN, bacteria in the human colon

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61

Commensalism

BN/N, staphylococcus on the skin

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62

Parasitism

BN/H, terbuculosis in the lungs

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63

Photosynthetic Cyanobacteria

Gram-negative, contain chlorophyll-A pigment, give off oxygen

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64

Photosynthetic sulfur bacteria

Bacteriochlorophyll pigment, give off sulfur not oxygen

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65

Photosynthetic non-sulfur bacteria

Bacteriochlorophyll pigment, use sulfates other than sulfur for oxidation

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66

Rickettsias

Tiny, gram-negative, mostly pathogen, transmitted by arthropods

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67

Chlamydia

Tiny, not transmitted by arthropods, STD

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68

Archaea

Protein synthesis similar to eukarya, no peptidoglycan in cell wall, long chain hydrocarbon

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69

Bacteria

Fatty acid, no protein synthesis similar to eukarya , one RNA sequence shared with eukarya

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70

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Protein synthesis and move to ER for packing

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71

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Nutrient processing, synthesis, lipid storage, detoxification

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72

Nucleolus

rRNA synthesis, assemble ribosomal units

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73

Eukaryotic ribosomes

Protein synthesis (80s)

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74

Fungi

Thick inner layer of polysaccharide fibers composed of chitin and thin layer of glycans

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75

Algae

Cellulose, pectin, mannas, silicon dioxide, and calcium carbonate

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76

Mastogophra

Primarily flagella, sexual reproduction

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77

Sarcodina

Primarily amoeba , asexual through fission, free-living

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78

Ciliphora

Cilia, trophozites, free-living and harmless

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79

Apicomplexa

Only male gametes move, asexual/sexual

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80

What must apicomplexa have

Locomotor structure (flagella or cilia)

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81

Microscopic Fungi

Mushroom

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82

Macroscopic fungi

Mold

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83

Lichens

Show environmental indicators, combination of green algae and fungus, slow growing

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84

Virus characteristics

Obligate I travel lunar parasites, DNA or RNA genome, surrounded by protein capsid, lack reproduction so they exploit host cell

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85

Capsid

Nucleocapsid, capsomers, enveloped/naked, spikes

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86

Three types of capsid structures

Helical, icosahedral, complex

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87

Poxivirus

Lacks capsid, covered with lipoproteins

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88

Bacteriophage

Polyhedral nucleocapsid with helical tail

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89

DNA virus

Herpes, smallpox

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90

RNA virus

Influenza HIV

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91

DsDNA

Normal flow of genetic information

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92

SsDNA

Produce dsDNA using host enzyme

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93

DsRNA

Translated into protein

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94

+ssRNA

Directly translated into viral protein

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95

-ssRNA

Must convert to +ssRNA to proceed further

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96

Classification of viruses

Enveloped/naked, genetic makeup, chemical composition, morphology, mechanism of multiplication

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97

Bacteriophage

Cytoplasm, does not require unloading

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98

Cytopathic effect

Abnormality to virus

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99

What abnormalities come from the cytopathic effect

Changes in size/shape, cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, cells fuse, lose, and altered DNA

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100

Viroid

Infectious RNA particle, lacking capsid causing plant disease

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