NCEA GENETICS LEVEL 1 VOCABULARY

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genotype

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Biology

10th

28 Terms

1

genotype

the two alleles inherited for a particular gene

<p>the two alleles inherited for a particular gene</p>
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2

gamete

sex cell of plant or animal

<p>sex cell of plant or animal</p>
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3

zygote

fertilised egg

<p>fertilised egg</p>
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4

dominant

describes an allele that is expressed even if only one is present in the genotype

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5

recessive

describes an allele that is expressed only if the dominant allele is not present

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6

homozygous

describes a genotype where both alleles are the same

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7

heterozygous

describes a genotype where both alleles are different

<p>describes a genotype where both alleles are different</p>
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8

pure breeding

an organism with a homozygous genotype

<p>an organism with a homozygous genotype</p>
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9

phenotype

what an organism physically looks like

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10

mutation

sudden and permanent change to the DNA of an organism

<p>sudden and permanent change to the DNA of an organism</p>
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11

nucleotide

building block of DNA made up of a base, a sugar and a phosphate group

<p>building block of DNA made up of a base, a sugar and a phosphate group</p>
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12

DNA

long double-stranded molecule made up of repeating nucleotides

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13

double helix

term that describes the structure of DNA

<p>term that describes the structure of DNA</p>
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14

meiosis

cell division to produce gametes or sex cells

<p>cell division to produce gametes or sex cells</p>
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15

allele

an alternative form of a gene

<p>an alternative form of a gene</p>
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16

gene

a length of DNA that codes for a particular characteristic

<p>a length of DNA that codes for a particular characteristic</p>
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17

chromosome

a long thin thread-like structure made from DNA wrapped around protein

<p>a long thin thread-like structure made from DNA wrapped around protein</p>
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18

variation

the genetic differences between organisms in a population

<p>the genetic differences between organisms in a population</p>
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19

continuous variation

a wide range of phenotypic variation without distinct categories

<p>a wide range of phenotypic variation without distinct categories</p>
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20

discontinuous variation

a characteristic with only a limited number of possible values

<p>a characteristic with only a limited number of possible values</p>
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21

deoxyribose

the sugar in DNA

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22

complementary base pairing rule

A with T and G with C

<p>A with T and G with C</p>
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23

autosome

any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome

<p>any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome</p>
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24

sex chromosomes

X and Y chromosomes that determine an organism's sex

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25

base pairs

A-T G-C

<p>A-T G-C</p>
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26

genome

all of an organism's chromosomes

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27

mitosis

cell division that results in two identical daughter cells

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28

natural selection

individuals whose characteristics are best suited to the environment at a given time are more likely to survive and to pass on their genes

<p>individuals whose characteristics are best suited to the environment at a given time are more likely to survive and to pass on their genes</p>
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