BIOLOGY 4.1-4.2

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What is ATP?

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Biology

9th

42 Terms

1

What is ATP?

A energy carrying molecule

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2

ADP

____ is made when one phosphate group gets removed from ATP

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3

photosynthesis

the transformation of light into chemical energy

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4

chemosynthesis

conversion of one or more carbon-containing molecules and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation

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5

autotroph

an organism that is able to capture energy from the environment and store it in chemical bonds of organic molecules

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6

heterotroph

an organism that must acquire energy by consuming other organisms

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7

stomata

Small pores. during photosynthesis, CO2 enters while Oxygen exits

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8

thylakoids

Connected disk-shaped pouches

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9

grana(Granium)

a stack of thylakoids

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10

light dependent reaction

Light energy Is captured and used to make ATP and high energy electrons carried by NADPH

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11

light independent reaction

ATP and NADPH are used to build carbohydrates(sugars) from carbon dioxide

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12

Calvin cycle

the series of steps during light-independent reactions of photosynthesis in which a THREE carbon sugar is formed

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13

Carbon fixation

THREE molecules of five-carbon sugars(RuBP) to begin the cycle. To each RuBP, a carbon atom from from CO2 is added this SIX-carbon molecule gets unstable and then splits up into two 3-carbon molecules of PGA

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14

wavelength

Gamma rays to Radio waves

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15

what are wavelengths measured in?

CPS/Hertz

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16

Pigment

a certain color to plant or animal tissues.

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17

chlorophyll

pigment that gives a green color to plants

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18

Photosystem II

solar energy excites electrons and water molecules are split into: Hydrogen ions oxygen molecules free electrons

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19

Photosystem I

electron carriers are charged -chlorophyll molecules absorb photons of sunlight energy and electrons pass the energy along another electron transport chain

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20

Chemical molecule for C6H1206

Glucose

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21

Chemical molecule for O2

oxygen

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22

Chemical molecule for CO2

Carbon dioxide

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23

ATP cycle

ATP looses a phosphate to form a double phosphate adenine ATP---->ADP TRI PHOSPHATE---> DI PHOSPHATE

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24

Enzymes

protein catalysts

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25

Coenzymes

an organic non-protein molecule that is required by an enzyme to perform its catalytic activity.

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26

ATP synthase

an enzyme that directly generates adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during the process of cellular respiration.

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27

Reaction Center

absorbs light, promoting an electron to a higher energy level within the pigment.

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28

Electron Acceptor

Place where E-'s are passed through in Photosystem II

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29

Photophosphorylation

photo excited electrons take a alternate path Called cyclic electron flow. uses photosystem I but not II. NO NADPH is produced no O2 is produced ONLY makes ATP E- cycle back

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30

P700

Photosystem I

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31

P680

Photosystem II

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32

Longest wavelength

RED

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33

Shortest wavelength

Violet

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34

C3 Plants

normal cycle

  • CO2 is taken up and fixed into 3-carbon chains(G3P)

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35

C4 Plants

Changes PLACE of Calvin cycle -CO2 is moved into cell and makes 4-carbon chains -CO2 is moved to leaf cells

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36

CAM plants

Changes TIME of Calvin cycle -CO2 is taken up when stomata is open and makes photosynthesis occur in DRYER conditions -Calvin cycle=during night

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37

3 stages of light independent reactions

fixation, reduction, and regeneration

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38

fixation

THREE molecules of five-carbon sugars (RuBP) begin the cycle. To each RuBP, a carbon atom from carbon dioxide (CO2) is added. -since this is a 6-carbon molecule, it breaks into TWO 3-carbon molecules of G3P

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39

Reduction

A series of chemical reactions powered by ATP and NADPH converts PGA into G3P. -MOST molecules of G3P are regenerated into RuBP, -SOME are combined to form glucose. Two molecules of G3P are needed to form each molecule of glucose.

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40

Glucose

2 G3P=____(molecule)

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41

2 G3P

3 RuBP=___(Molecule)

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42

Regeneration

Using the energy from ATP molecules, G3P react to form RuBP molecules. This allows the cycle to begin again.

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