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East Asia (China) 1200-1450

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East Asia (China) 1200-1450

Emperor rules as monarch, lots of dynasties

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(960 - 1279 CE) Song Dynasty Gov.

Emperors rule over people, stacked their bureaucracy (people who worked) within the government by the Civil Service Exam- more opportunity for poor

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Rulers of the Song Dynasty used the ________

Imperial Exam/Civil service exam to appoint people to positions within the Imperial Bureaucracy

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Song Dynasty- Civil Service Exam

built on Confucian principles of mutual respect, filal piety, and personal ethics, poor underrepresented but allowed for more upward ability than any other hiring system of the time

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China copy

Everyone copying China, largest economy on Earth

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Neo-Confucianism evolved in China between

770-840, syncretism Dao & Budd., mysteries of God and nature

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Song China- Neo- Confucianism & Buddhism

spread to Korea and Japan

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Buddhism description- Song China

originated in India, spread to China during Han Dynasty widespread during Tang via SILK ROADS, Middle Way, Nirvana, Eightfold Path, Dharma

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1200 China Economy

most known for eco, 3x larger than Europe, powerful

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Goods connected by Grand Canal- Song China

Champa Rice, Paper- Wood block printing book (7th century), Paper Money, Gunpowder spread into Eurasia via Silk Roads trade w/India and Persia, Porcelain

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2 ways agricultural innovations like Champa Rice benefitted EA (before 11th century)

Drought resistant, Providing a crop of rice that could be harvested 2-3 times per season agri output ^, allowing farmers to profit more from its cultivation. Also increased caloric intake, led to higher populations

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Confucianism Definition- Song China

Philosophy that taught human society is hierarchical by nature, which is to say, society was composed of unequal relationships

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Confucianism Description ex- Song China

Father>Son, Husband>Wives, Ruler>Subjects, Filial Piety, Self-Cultivation, Dao/Tao, Ancestor Worship

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Confucianism Explanation- Song China

Greater entities must treat “lesser” entities with care/concern/benevolence. Lesser entities must obey. Follow the rules= stability, scholars w/knowledge similar to Renaissance Euro men

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Taoism Description- Song China

Lao Tzu, Dao/Tao, Tao te Qing, Harmony/Nature

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2 Examples how Chinese traditions affected other areas in EA like Japan/Korea

Confucianism & Buddhism transferred to Korea/Japan w/diff acceptance. Both Incorporated Imperial/Civil Service Exam and Buddhism w/diff acceptance.

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The Song Dynasty lost

the Mandate of Heaven and their rule of China was ended by the invasion of the Mongol Empire

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How did the Song Dynasty maintain and justify its power?

Revival of Confucianism from previous Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE), Song rulers used this hierarchical view of society to maintain and justify their rule, Increased use of Imperial Bureaucracy -civil service exam

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Confucianism official Chinese State Philosophy during

Han Dynasty (200 BCE-220CE)- once it fell, so did Confucianism

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Filial Piety definition- Song China

The practice of honoring one’s ancestors and parents= Chinese rulers liked then subjects can honor them easier

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Confucianism kept ancient Chinese Society working

for a long time, Once Han Dynasty fell, so did Confucianism, no more cultural harmony

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Tang Dynasty- Confucianism experienced

a revival, carried into the Song rule= Neo-Confucianism

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What made Neo-Confucianism new?

Influence of Buddhist and Daoist philosophical ideas

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The revival of Confucianism (Tang Dynasty) demonstrates a

historical continuity between ancient China and the Song period, but it also illustrates innovation, changed Confucianism to suit their contemporary purpose

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Women In Song China- regulated to the (Strengthened during Song and Tang Dynasty)

subordinate position in the hierarchy, legal rights restricted, women’s property became her husband’s, if she was widowed/divorced= forbidden to remarry *Footbinding

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Footbinding in Song China (ONLY CHINA- no adoption anywhere)

Young girls had their feet wrapped so tightly that the bones did not grow naturally, trouble walking- no public space, symbol of aristocrat family, no labor, wealthy for servants!

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governmental entity that carries out will of the emperor

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During the Song Dynasty, the imperial bureaucracy grew in scope and thus helped them maintain their rule- how did it happen?

Take merit based civil service exam- based on Confucian classics

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Song Dynasty- Civil Service Exam- Song maintain and justify power?

Bureaucracy staffed with most qualified men- merit based!- Unlike Han Dynasty- you knew a guy, increased competency and efficiency of bureaucratic tasks

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Song Dynasty- China Cultural Influences on neighboring states- Korea- threat of invasion

used similar civil service exam to staff bureaucracy POWERFUL ARISTOCRACY= (no poor) elite= adopted Confucian principles with organized their family structures, further marginalizing role of women, emperors independent politically because of tributary relationship with China

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Song Dynasty- China Cultural Influences on neighboring states- Japan- no threat, isolated 7th-9th cent. CE

voluntarily! used China’s imperial bureaucracy, Buddhism among Japanese elite and Chinese writing system

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Song Dynasty- China Cultural Influences on neighboring states- Vietnam- threat of invasion

politically independent w/tributary system, elite= confucianism, buddhism, Chinese literary techniques, & cse- women not as marginalized than China, nature dieties= female, loyalty to village peasants, no polygmy

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Song Dynasty- Buddhism belief- from Hinduism (karma and rebirth)

Four Noble truths- life=suffering, suffer bc of crave, cease suffering when cease craving, Eightfold path leads to cessation of suffering and craving, Eightfold Path- outlines principles and practices Buddhist follow- moral lifestyle & meditation

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Song Dynasty- Buddhism changed once spread- Theravada Buddhism

Sri Lanka origin, escape cycle of birth and death, practice restricted to only monks- select few, personal, meditation, SE ASIA

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Song Dynasty- Buddhism changed once spread- Theravada into E Asia= Mahayana

Buddhist teachings to all, no select few, emphasized compassion, made Buddha into object of devotion

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Song Dynasty- Buddhism changed once spread- Mahayana into Tibetan= Tibetan Budd.

basic doctrines, emphasized more mystical practices- lying prostrate, elaborate imaginings of deities

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Song dynasty made it their policy to emphasize more traditional Chinese ideas, like Confucianism, Buddhism

continued to play a significant role in their society= Chan Buddhism SYNCRETISM w/dao

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Economy In The Song Dynasty (Began in Tang) Commercialization of the economy, Proto-industrialization

China prod. more goods than needed to survive, sold on World Market, Paper money- credit/promissory notes redeemed at end of voyage, reduced robbery

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Economy In The Song Dynasty (Began in Tang) Iron & Steel Production (4th cent BCE.)

China had the greatest manufacturing capability & home-based artisans- prod. iron and steel create armor needed for war, coins needed for trade/taxation, and tools needed for agriculture

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Economy In The Song Dynasty (Began in Tang) Agricultural Innovation

widespread iron, plows, & rakes, introduction of Champa rice- Champa Kingdom from Vietnam- population explosion

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Economy In The Song Dynasty (Began in Tang) Transportation Innovations

Expand Grand Canal- linked Yellow and Huang Se rivers, trade among regions= cheaper! Magnetic Compass, New Ship-Building Tech.

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Magnetic Compass & Ship Building tech

improved navigation on water, facilitated sea-based trade among various regions trade ships= Junks, create water-type bulkheads, stern mounted rudders, navigation= accurate= more trade, allowed control on S China Sea

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Death of Buddha (483 BCE)

Buddhism split - Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism

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Tang dynasty successfully promoted growth, intricate systems, much more which led to the prosperity of Song Dynasty such as the

Grand Canal, enabled Song China become most populous trading area in the world

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Social Structure in China- the scholar gentry

outnumbered aristocracy (landowners-inherit wealth), educated in Confucian philosophy, most influential, low status of merchants(-no labor) created respect for Confucian respect hard work, peasants and poor health aid by Song gov.

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Tang & Song Dynasties prefer

native Chinese Daoists and Neo-Confucianism, Song more friendly to Buddhism

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Japan had a (similar to Europe)

feudalist society, without centralized gov, aristocrats want control of land, little social mobility, hereditary hierarchies, serfs, samurais, and daimyo- much more power than nobility of Europe, 17th cent Japan shoguns create strong central gov.

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Vietnam Military Conflict w/China

Tang Dynasty crumble during 8th cent, Vietnamese rebels push out Chinese occupation, guerilla warfare

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Judaism, Christianity, Dar-Al-Islam (rapid spread after 632)

Judaism, ethnic reli. of Jews in ME, Christianity- Jewish prophet Jesus Christ p.b.u.h., Islam- Muhammad p.b.u.h 7th cent- salvation found in righteous actions (632 death) spread ME, N& Sub-Saharan Africa into Europe & Asia

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Spread of Dar-Al-Islam (the World of Islam)

Military Expansion- Dehli Sultanate, Trade- spread through N Africa, and Muslim Missionariess through trade contact and military action, respect on merchants bc prophet was merchant, Empire of Mali converted to Islam for trade

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Abbsaid Caliphate during 1200

ethnically Arab, In Power during Golden Age of Islam (all run by Arabs) bureaucracy any Muslim can be with 1200= fragmenting due to Mongols taking Baghdad, several new islamic empires began to rise in its place- Turkic- spread influence of Islam

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Abbsaid caliphate tookover (before 1200)

Ummayad empire- JCM coexist peacefully, SE & E can trade= trade goes to Europe too, who was in Spain-Cordoba= largest library creating significant cultural impact, focused on administration and conquering, lost Battle of Tours against France, westward expansion ended at Spain

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Seljuk Empire- 11th century

Central Asia, pastoral brought by Abbsaids for military, grew more and more in power, Seljuks had most of political power, sultan 1st= reduced caliph to chief reli. authority

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Mamluk Sultanate 1250-1517

Abuyyad Sultanate under need labor, took Turkic, once leader die, Mamluks (enslaved people) took over Egypt, another Turkic state- cotton and sugar between Islamic worlds

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Dehli Sultanate (1206- 1520)

1st islamic government, South Asia, N India, rise of Turkic people, no efficient bureaucracy= sultans difficult imposing policies across India

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Continuity in Muslim Empires

Military in charge of administration, implemented Sharia Law

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Muslim Missionaries spread by

Sufis- mystical experience to anyone, intervening local traditions into religion for appeal

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Innovations and Transfers DAR AL-ISLAM

Mathematics, trigonometry, astronomy, medical procedures, House of Wisdom established during Golden Age- Baghdad under Abbasaid Caliphate, everyone came to study, knowledge from India & China groundwork for Renaissance and Scientific Rev. In Europe ex. Making paper in China, taught to Euro by Muslims, vital in spreading ideas to Europe

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House of Wisdom, Baghdad scholars in charge of

preserving works of Greek moral, natural philosophy, translated into Arabic and wrote more, without=lost forever, transferred to Europe= basis of Renaissance

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Crusaders during Dar Al-Islam

Abbasaid Caliphate gave Christians access to Holy Land, Seljuk limited= start of Crusades

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Mongol Empire

from C Asia, most famous conquerers- remaining Abbasaid, and ended Seljuk Rule, stopped in Egypt by Mamluks

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Baghdad decay

trade routes up north= no more center of trade= decay

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Revival of Silk Road trade & Soldiers

merchants wealthy from Indian Ocean and Central Asia, caliph soldier’s cannot own land- non Arab= discrimination

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Women in Islam

Muhammad p.b.u.h. raised stat of women= devotion/love, mehr, no female infantcide, property! but Islamic town on rise= limit women

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Al-Andanus (Spain) around 1200

JCM influenced each other, Muslim commentaries on Aristotle= Jew philosopher Maimonides, analyze and influence Christian

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Empire formed in India’s north, what was its cultural legacy?

Dehli Sultanate- no high centralized control, liked bureaucracy

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Islamic empire during golden age, height of territorial control, prosperity, and intellectual progess

Abbsaid Caliphates- fragmented due to Turk overtake/invasionsh

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Key characteristics and core beliefs of hinduism

Karma/dharma= rebirth, caste system, ethnic religion (Buddhism universalizing)

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Three main belief systems 1200 south and south east Asia

Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism all struggling for dominance

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Hinduism mainly India description

polytheistic, apart from Judaism or Islam, Goal= reunite their individual souls to all the pervasive world soul known as Brahman involves cycling to death and rebirth to achieve (reincarnation), Provided conditions for a unified culture in India

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How did hinduism provide conditions for a unified culture in India

Achieve this by structuring Indian society according to their cast system- virtuous on top (Brahmin) and refuse of society on bottom, if good in life, reincarnated into a higher caste, stability for politically decentralized land

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Buddhism in S Asia-India differences & similarities w/Hindu

Cycle of birth and death and reincarnation, ultimate goal is to dissolve into the oneness of the universe, Buddhism equality for all universalizing religion, Hinduism caste system, ethnic religion

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Universalizing Buddhism in S Asia

Planted in any culture without completely overturning that culture, more likely to spread

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Buddhism 1200- in S Asia - India was


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Islam- Turkic invaders came into South Asia and set up

Muslim empire- Delhi Sultanate in 1206, 2nd most important belief system as Buddhism was waning

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Because in large parts of India the Muslims were in charge, it became the religion of the

elite, and then throughout Southeast Asia

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Hinduism- change Bhakti Movement S India 1200

Hindu & Budd= trying to dom, Encourage believers to worship one particular God in the Hindu patheon of God, rejected the hierarchy of Hinduism, encourage spiritual experiences to all people regardless of social status, SPIRITUAL HINDUSIM

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Bhaktis and Sufis Comparison change- S & SE Asia

Both have mystical experience, rejected elaborate doctrines and religious requirements of the elite, emphasize access of spiritual experience to all people= spread of Belief

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Buddhism change in South Asia

Despite the original teachings of the Buddha emphasizing access to enlightenment for old people, by this time in south Asia it had become more and more exclusive, nirvana only 4 monks DECLINE

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S Asia- Islam Dehli Sultanate resistance

Trouble imposing Islam on Indian, Hinduism entrenched socially and culturally, Islam= minority religion

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Explain ONE political challenge faced by the rulers of the Delhi Sultanate in attempting to govern their territory.

their lack of centralized rule. Specifically, their lack of organized bureaucracy hurt their ability to truly control and enforce policies across all of their territory. Unlike Song China, for example, they did not have the bureaucratic organization needed to tightly centralize their power.

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Rajput Kingdoms before Delhi Sultanate (1200)- N India

rival and warring Hindu kingdoms= no centralized government, lack of centralized power= some conquered by Muslims, some independent

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Vijayanagara Empire- S India (14th century)

HINDU Muslim want to expand to S, send emissaries, emissaries turn back to Hinduism= Vijayanagara Empire

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Sea based states SE Asia 7th-11th cent

Srivijaya Empire- Buddhist State influence by Indian Hindu culture, Power come from control over water named strait of Malacca, merchants travel to Indian ocean, wealthy from taxes imposed on ships

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Sea based states- end of 13th cent- Majapahit Kingdom on Java SE ASIA

Formally Hindu kingdom, strong Buddhist influence, maintain power through tributary system, Power from sea

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Land based states SE ASIA Sinhala Dynasties

Sri Lanka- buddhist state- power from land, buddhist priests give advice to monarch

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Land based states SE Asia Khmer (Cambodia) empire 802-1431

Hindu empire (exception to ethnic religions not spreading), prosperous, built most magnificent Hindu temple in existence named Angkor Wat, converted to Buddhismm= put Buddhist stuff on top of temple, no destroying Hindu elements SYNCRETISM

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Khmer Empire prosperous because of

complex irrigation and drainage systems, allowing often harvest rice crops (Buddhist now)

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Hindus of the North in India did

not convert under Islamic rule

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What is the cultural significance of Angkor Wat?

Temple for Lord Shiva in Khmer Empire, incorporated Buddhist elements on top of Hindu temple without destroying it

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South east Asian natural resource- profitable trade good on Silk Road Network crop

spices & champa rice

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Southern India is much more stable than

Northern India

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Arrival of Islam attraction to

low caste to improve social status, Buddhism=minority, most converts= Buddhism bc disorganized due to corruption and raid

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More freedom for women in


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Delhi Sultanate evidence with Islam influence - Qutub Minar

elaborate mosque on top of Hindu temple

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Trade influences introduced Hinduism and Buddhism to

SE Asia, spices!- whoever controlled this part, influenced valuable trade

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Mesoamerica maya 250-900 CE

State structure basically a decentralized collection of city states= each ruled by king, no male heir= many women ruled that were frequently at war with one another- urban centers, sophisticated writing system, concept of zero, tribute! common people pay taxes, mili service, decentralized

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Maya Expansion- before 1200

fought to create vast network of tributary states among neighboring regions, local power conquered somewhat independent, required to send tribute payments to Maya textiles and military weapons

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Maya emphasis on human sacrifice- before 1200

sun diety, constantly losing energy, need human blood

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Aztec Empire 1345-1528 Mexica people

hunter-gatherers semi-nomadic, migrated S around 14th cent. military prowess, marrying into better families

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