APES Midterm

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fundamental niche.


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Environmental Science


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108 Terms

fundamental niche.

The full potential niche of a species

realized niche

An individual that only plays part of its role due to competition or other interactions

resource partitioning

The division of environmental resources by coexisting species such that the niche of each species differs by one or more significant factors from the niches of all coexisting species

Character displacement

competing species diverge and develop different characteristics.


The process by which individuals of one species (the predators) capture, kill, and consume individuals of another (the prey).


Parasites that cause disease are called


A relationship between two species in which both species benefit


A relationship in which two different organisms live in close association with each other


interaction in which one animal (the herbivore) feeds on producers (such as plants)

keystone species

A species that influences the survival of many other species in an ecosystem

trophic cascade

If top predators are lost, primary consumers will overconsume producers and alter the entire ecosystem

Introduced species

species moved by humans to new geographic areas, either intentionally or accidentally(non-native species)

invasive species

species that enter new ecosystems and multiplies, harming native species and their habitats


the application of population ecology to the study of change in human populations

Demographic transition

a model of economic and cultural change

Signs of Pre-industrial stage

High birth rate and High death rate

Signs of Post-industrial stage

Low birth rate and low death rate

Signs of industrial stage

Birth rate decline due to increase of opportunities for women and increase in use of birth control

Signs of transition stage

Death rate declines but Birth rate is still high


Mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals that forms the crumbly, topmost layer of soil.


a system consisting of disintegrated rock, organic matter, water, gases, nutrients, and microorganisms.

clay size

particles are the smallest, less than 0.002 mm in diameter.

Sand size

the largest, between 0.05-2 mm in diameter.

silt size

particles fall in-between clay and sand

slash-and-burn agriculture

a farming technique in which trees are cut down and burned to clear and fertilize the land


The artificial provision of water beyond what is received by precipitation


A form of soil degradation that occurs when soil remains under water for prolonged periods.

Inorganic fertilizers

Fertilizer produced commercially, normally with the use of fossil fuels

Organic fertilizers

fertilizer composed of organic matter from plants and animals

Land degradation

a deterioration of land that diminishes its productivity and biodiversity and impairs the functioning of its ecosystems

Soil degradation

the deterioration in quality and productivity of soil.

3 ways to make land more vulnerable to erosion

Over cultivating fields, Grazing rangeland with more livestock than it can support, and Clearing forests on steep slopes

Crop rotation

The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.


creating flat platforms in the hillside that provide a level planting surface, which reduces soil runoff from the slope.


An agricultural method in which two or more crop species are planted in the same field at the same time to promote a synergistic interaction.


rows of trees planted as a windbreak to reduce soil erosion of agricultural land

Why is tilling bad?

Since tillage fractures the soil, it disrupts soil structure, accelerating surface runoff and soil erosion


Destruction of vegetation caused by too many grazing animals consuming the plants in a particular area so they cannot recover


over watering the soil dissolves salts from subsoil layers and when the water evaporates it leaves an abundance of salt on top


An agricultural method that utilizes large plantings of a single species or variety

Signs of industrial farming

large-scale, intensive production of crops and animals, often involving chemical fertilizers on crops or the routine

Green Revolution

Agricultural revolution that increased production through improved seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation; was the start of industrial agriculter.


A chemical intended to kill insects and other organisms that damage crops.


Raising marine and freshwater fish in ponds and underwater cages. It reduces fishing pressure on wild stocks. Saves fossil fuels.

Why is are pesticides getter stronger?

Pesticides don't kill all pest and some survive and then breed producing a stronger more resistant pest and needs stronger chemicals.

Cons of aquaculture

density of animals increases disease. Shrimp farming destroys mangroves. Pollution. Lots of fish waste

Why is crop diversity important?

Insurance against monoculture fail. If there are genetic variations then one disease will not kill every plant.

biological control

A method of pest control that involves the use of naturally occurring disease organisms, parasites, or predators to control pests


Concentrated animal feeding operation - aka Factory farms