American History 1st Semester Test

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Mercantilism

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US History

Test 12/8 and 12/9

58 Terms

1

Mercantilism

A system developed by kings to increase their money and power and to get control of trade routes. Tried to export more goods than they import (a favorable balance of trade). Only Kings Benefited. Caused lots of smuggling

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2

Differences between New France, New England, New Netherland, and New Spain

Only France and the Netherlands had consistent positive relationships with the Natives. Spain: Mexico and Florida, France: Canada, Netherlands: New York, New Jersey, Delaware,Connecticut, England: Massachusetts and Virginia. New England was given freedom to govern themselves.

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3

Benefits and drawbacks of early contact between the Europeans and the Natives

Disease killed 50-90% of Native Americans(D) They traded and gained many useful things muskets, horses. Died in Attacks from Native Americans(D) Gained useful materials from trading[tobacco,potatoes], slaves, and land(B).

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4

Jamestown

First permanent English settlement in North America. Founded to look for gold. Almost failed because of disease and a starving time. Had good leaders like John Smith who helped them survive.

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5

New England Colonies

Massachusetts(includes Maine), Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire. Had lots of ports and forests. Not good for farming.

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6

Middle Colonies

New York(includes Vermont), New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware. Delaware and Pennsylvania used to be connected to give Pennsylvania access to the Atlantic Ocean. There was a difficulty uniting the two so they split.

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7

Southern Colonies

Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia. North and South Carolina used to be one colony (Carolina) and had a humid climate and swampy coast. Maryland was good for growing tobacco because it had a warm climate, good soil, and the Potomac River. Tobacco was grown in North Carolina and indigo and rice was grown in South Carolina.

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8

Why Massachusetts was founded

Founded by the puritans for religious freedom

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9

Why Connecticut was founded

The founder Thomas Hooker thought the Massachusetts government had too much power

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10

Why Rhode Island was founded

Roger Williams believed in the separation of church and state. It had complete religious freedom

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11

Why New Hampshire was founded

Who knows

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12

Why New York was founded

Was a Dutch colony but was taken over by the English without any shots being fired

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13

Why New Jersey was founded

The Duke of York divided it among his friends because he had too much land

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14

Why Pennsylvania was founded

Founded as a home for the Quakers

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15

Why Delaware was founded

It was given to Pennsylvania so it could have access to the Atlantic ocean but they eventually split due to a difficulty uniting the colonists

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16

Why Virginia was founded

Founded to gain wealth from gold

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17

Why Maryland was founded

For religion and money

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18

Why North and South Carolina were founded

Was founded to grow tobacco and other crops

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19

Why Georgia was founded

To give London prisoners who owed debt another chance. The charter was granted because King George II wanted a buffer between the colonies and Spanish Florida

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20

The Puritans

A religious group in Massachusetts that had a theocracy, strict living/punishments, and tried to be "a city upon a hill".

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21

The Quakers

The most hated religious group in England. Their beliefs were: All people are equal, refused to take oaths, women should have a say, against war, refused to pay taxes, first group against slavery. Had the "Holy Experiment" which was an idea for a model colony based on peace, Christian living, and religious freedom

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22

The Catholics of Maryland

Founded Maryland but had trouble when protestants moved in, the Toleration Act was formed to help. The Toleration Act says all Christians had the right to worship as they pleased

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23

The Pilgrims

Left London for religious freedom in the colonies. Came to America on the Mayflower with ~100 people. Built the Mayflower Compact (The [self] government of the pilgrims)

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24

The Separatists

Worshiped outside/without the church

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25

John Winthrop

First governor of Massachusetts

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26

Thomas Hooker

Founder of Connecticut. Left Massachusetts

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27

Roger Williams

Founder of Rhode Island. Was banished from Massachusetts

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28

Anne Hutchinson

Was brought to trail for holding a bible study. Was banished from Massachusetts

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29

Duke of York

The brother of the king who had a lot of land

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30

William Penn

Founder of Pennsylvania and leader of the Quakers. Was personal friends with the king until he became leader of the Quakers. Was able to found Pennsylvania thanks to his money and power

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31

John Smith

Governor who helped the colonists of Virginia survive (mainly Jamestown)

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32

Lord Baltimore

Created Maryland's land plan. Land plan was free land for every child and servant you brought with

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33

James Oglethorpe

Founder of Georgia who banned slavery and limited the size of land grants

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34

King George II

Granted James Oglethorpe the lability to found Georgia

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35

The Great Migration

The single largest movement of people (mostly puritans)

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36

The Mayflower Compact

The (self) government of the pilgrims' colony. It was a document based on majority rule and was signed by men

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37

The House of Burgesses

Jamestown's Government. The first representative government in America

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38

Triangular Trade

A three-way trade that moved in a triangle between Africa, the colonies in America, and Europe

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39

The Scientific Revolution significance

If scientific thinkers could use science to figure out the basic law, then it was reasoned that the same principles could be used to figure out how people behave toward each other and the role that government should have in a society

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40

The Enlightenment

Historical period in the 18th century in which science and reason were applied to question traditional thinking about the world. Ideas: Humans are inherently bad, kings don’t rule by divine right, all people are equal(Hobbes), government should only exist with the consent of the governed, people have the right to life, liberty, and property(Locke), representative governments, branches of governments(Montesquieu), people are good, people give government power, and a social contract between people and government(Rou

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41

The Great Awakening significance

Started in order to come back to living religiously. The great awakening was for all people (women, slaves, commoners, aristocrats). Colonists became United around religion

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42

The French and Indian War

Started because England and France both claimed land in the Ohio Valley. England eventually won but ended up with a lot of debt

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43

The Proclamation of 1763

Prohibited colonists from settling west of the Appalachian mountains. Was disliked by many colonists

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44

Stamp Act

First direct tax on colonists by parliament. Forced people to pay taxes on items such as newspapers, playing cards, and legal documents. Colonists believed it went against the idea of no taxation without representation

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45

Townshend Acts

Laws designed to raise money from the colonies. Acts placed import taxes on paint, glass, lead, paper, and tea coming into America. Acts also allowed British officials warrants to search anywhere for suspected smuggled goods

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46

Tea Act

Designed to help the East India Company who was struggling. Gave company exclusive rights to sell tea to Americans without paying the British import tax. Colonists protested the act because it cut business for colonial sea captains and merchants

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47

Intolerable Acts

Laws meant to punish the colonists for the Boston Tea Party. Closed the port of Boston until payment was made, British officials tried in England rather than America, continued the quartering act, and reduced Massachusetts’ right to self government

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48

Sons/Daughters of liberty

Protest group who helped organized boycotts. Led by Sam Adams in Boston. Women signed pledges against drinking tea, promised not to buy British made cloth, and met at spinning clubs to make their own cloth

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49

Boycotts

American colonists boycotted(or refused to buy or sell) British goods

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50

Boston Massacre

Boston citizens were angry at British soldiers. A group of civilians started throwing snowballs, ice, and rocks. Mob surrounded soldiers in protest and the soldiers fired their guns, killing 5 people. After, the townshend acts were repealed except for the tax on tea

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51

Committees of Correspondence

Network of communication for passing along news of British activity to the colonies. Organized by Sam Adams in Massachusetts

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52

Boston Tea Party

Organized by a group of about 50 mean from the sons of liberty, some disguised as Mohawk Indians. Dumped 342 chest (90,000 pound) of tea into the harbor from a ship in Boston

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53

First Continental Congress

Group of delegates from every colony except Georgia who met in Philadelphia. Intended to fix the problem with Britain instead of independence. They hoped that a unified voice would gain them a hearing in London

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54

Second Continental Congress

Delegates from all 13 colonies met in Philadelphia. George Washington to build a continental army

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55

Olive Branch Petition

Petition sent to the king by the second continental congress begging him to stop the war and make peace with the colonies. Unsuccessful-George lll declared the Americans to be rebels and the colonies went to war

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56

“No taxation without representation”

The idea that the colonies shouldn’t have been taxed because they had nobody to speak for them in parliament

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57

The difference between a patriot and a loyalist

A patriot supported independence from Great Britain and a loyalist didn’t support independence from Great Britain

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58

The Declaration of Independece

Th goal and purpose of the Declaration of Independence was to declare independence from Great Britain. Some people opposed it because they wanted to stay connected with England and some opposed it because they didn’t want war

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