AP US History Unit 1 Review

studied byStudied by 24 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

Encomienda system

1 / 63

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

64 Terms

1

Encomienda system

This was a colonial labor system in which the Spanish, or the ecomenderos, enslaved native people to farm and mine int the Americas. They had a hard time keeping the NAtives in control and eventually replaced them with African slaves.

<p>This was a colonial labor system in which the Spanish, or the ecomenderos, enslaved native people to farm and mine int the Americas. They had a hard time keeping the NAtives in control and eventually replaced them with African slaves.</p>
New cards
2

Incas

This highly developed civilization developed a vast South American empire based in Peru. (p. 2)

<p>This highly developed civilization developed a vast South American empire based in Peru. (p. 2)</p>
New cards
3

Aztecs

Starting about 1300 this civilization flourished in central Mexico. (p. 2)

<p>Starting about 1300 this civilization flourished in central Mexico. (p. 2)</p>
New cards
4

conquistadores

These Spanish explorers and conquerors of the Americas sent ships loaded with gold and silver back to Spain making it the richest and most powerful nation in Europe. (p. 8)

<p>These Spanish explorers and conquerors of the Americas sent ships loaded with gold and silver back to Spain making it the richest and most powerful nation in Europe. (p. 8)</p>
New cards
5

Hernan Cortes

Conquered the Aztecs in Mexico. (p. 8)

<p>Conquered the Aztecs in Mexico. (p. 8)</p>
New cards
6

Roanoke Island

In 1587 Sir Walter Raleigh attempted to establish a settlement here, but it failed. (p. 9)

<p>In 1587 Sir Walter Raleigh attempted to establish a settlement here, but it failed. (p. 9)</p>
New cards
7

Ferdinand and Isabella

They united Spain, defeated and drove out the Moors. In 1492 they funded Christopher Columbus's voyage to America. (p. 5)

<p>They united Spain, defeated and drove out the Moors. In 1492 they funded Christopher Columbus's voyage to America. (p. 5)</p>
New cards
8

Protestant Reformation

in the early 1500s, certain christians in germany, england, france, holland, and other northern european countries revolted against the authority of the pope in rome

<p>in the early 1500s, certain christians in germany, england, france, holland, and other northern european countries revolted against the authority of the pope in rome</p>
New cards
9

Christopher Columbus

He spent 8 years seeking financial support for his plan to sail west from Europe to the "Indies". His success in discovering lands on the other side of the ocean brought him a burst of glory in Spain. He is an Italian Sailor and asked Ferdinand and Isabella for help.

<p>He spent 8 years seeking financial support for his plan to sail west from Europe to the "Indies". His success in discovering lands on the other side of the ocean brought him a burst of glory in Spain. He is an Italian Sailor and asked Ferdinand and Isabella for help.</p>
New cards
10

Bartolome de Las Casas

A Spanish priest who was an advocate for better treatment of Indians. He spent time with them and saw their humanity.

<p>A Spanish priest who was an advocate for better treatment of Indians. He spent time with them and saw their humanity.</p>
New cards
11

Act of Toleration

The first colonial statue granting religious freedom to all Christians, but it called for death of all non-Christians. It was created to provide a safe haven for Catholics. (1649)

New cards
12

tobacco

John Rolfe and his wife Pocahontas helped Jamestown develop a new variety of tobacco which became popular in Europe and became a profitable crop.

New cards
13

Jamestown

established in 1607, became the first permanent English settlement in the Americas

New cards
14

Captain John Smith

forceful and strict leader of Jamestown, VA for the first five years

New cards
15

John Rolfe

He helped Jamestown develop a new variety of tobacco which became popular in Europe and became a profitable crop.

New cards
16

Casta System

This was a new system of social classes that categorized people based on their racial ancestry.

New cards
17

Chesapeake Colonies

In 1632, the area once known as the Virginia colony, has divided into the Virginia and Maryland colony. Maryland became the first proprietary colony.

<p>In 1632, the area once known as the Virginia colony, has divided into the Virginia and Maryland colony. Maryland became the first proprietary colony.</p>
New cards
18

Joint-stock company

Corporate colonies, such as Jamestown, were operated by joint-stock companies, at least during the colony's early years. This is a limited liability organization in which a plurality of investors pool their money to fund a venture.

New cards
19

Virginia Company

England's King James I chartered the Virginia Company, a joint-stock company that founded the first permanent English colony in America at Jamestown in 1607.

New cards
20

indentured servants

Young people from England under contract (5-7 years) to work for a master for their time allotted in the contract. After if they survived, they would be paid in land. After their contracts expired most servants never escaped poverty. Mostly women, who were not allowed to get married during their contract

New cards
21

headright system

A method for attracting immigrants, Virginia offered 50 acres of land to each immigrant who paid for passage to America and to any plantation owner who paid for an immigrants passage.

New cards
22

Columbian Exchange

The transatlantic flow of animals, food, people, and diseases that began with Columbus's voyages.

New cards
23

Mestizos

Spanish word for person of mixed Native American and European ancestry.

New cards
24

Black Legend

Idea that the Spanish New World empire was more oppressive toward the Indians than other European empires; was used as a justification for English imperial expansion.

New cards
25

Pope/Pueblo Rebellion

A Pueblo Indian who became the main organizer of an uprising that aimed to drive the Spanish from their colony and restore the Indians' traditional autonomy.//Uprising in 1680 in which Pueblo Indians temporarily drove Spanish colonists out of modern-day New Mexico.

New cards
26

Pueblo

Farmers in which were a settled population who spent their time planting and harvesting crops. They made advanced irrigation systems. They had cliff dwellings.

New cards
27

House of Burgesses

The first elected assembly in colonial America.

New cards
28

Henry VIII

Launched Reformation. Established Anglican Church, so he could divorce his wife

New cards
29

Royal Colonies

A colony ruled or administered by officials appointed by and responsible to the reigning sovereign

New cards
30

Cecilius Calvert(Lord Baltimore)

Proprietor of Maryland. Did not believe in representative institutions. Wanted Catholics and protestants to live in peace

New cards
31

Predestination

the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power

New cards
32

Separatists

People who wanted to have a separate, or different church. Also known as Pilgrims.

New cards
33

Mayflower Compact

the first governing document of Plymouth Colony

New cards
34

Massachusetts Bay Colony

Colony founded in 1629 by John Winthrop, part of the Great Puritan Migration, founded by puritans. Had a theocratic republic. "City upon a hill"

New cards
35

Anne Hutchinson

A Puritan woman who was well learned that disagreed with the Puritan Church in Massachusetts Bay Colony. Her actions resulted in her banishment from the colony, and later took part in the formation of Rhode Island. She displayed the importance of questioning authority.

New cards
36

Goods Europe to the Americas

Wheat, rice, and soybeans. Catttle, Pigs, and horses. Slaves.

New cards
37

Ute People

They lived in the Great Basin Region. The people who lived here were nomadic. Traveling around hunting buffalos and gathering enough food to live. They organized themselves into Egalitarian Kinship Bands.

New cards
38

King Philip's War (1675-1676)

Series of assaults by Metacom, King Philip, on English settlements in New England. The attacks slowed the westward migration of New England settlers for several decades.

New cards
39

New England Confederation

New England colonists formed the New England Confederation in 1643 as a defense against local Native American tribes and encroaching Dutch. The colonists formed the alliance without the English crown's authorization.

New cards
40

Chumash

People that lived in present day California. They built villages that were capable of sustaining thousands of people and participated in trade all along the coast.

New cards
41

Good from the Americas to Europe

Potatoes, Tomatoes, and Maize. Turkeys. Gold and Silver. Diseases.

New cards
42

Quakers (Society of Friends)

Pacifists who believe that individuals deserve recognition for their spiritual state. They swear allegiance to God and "quake" under deep religious emotion.

New cards
43

William Penn

A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.

New cards
44

Bacon's Rebellion (1676)

Rebellion of discontent former landless servants led by Nathaniel Bacon.
Led to a move from indentured servants to African slaves for labor purposes.

New cards
45

Middle Passage

A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies

New cards
46

Cahokia

Folks that lived in the Mississippi River Valley. They were farmers because of the rich soil and participated in trade up and down the main waterways found in that region. They were led by powerful Chieftains.

New cards
47

House of Burgesses

Elected assembly in colonial Virginia, created in 1618.

New cards
48

Jeremiads

a new form of sermon in the Puritan churches in the mid-seventeenth century; preachers scolded parishioners for their waning piety

New cards
49

Half-Way Covenant

1690s
*Decision by Puritan colony churches to allow the grandchildren of those who did not have the personal experience of conversion to participate in select church affairs
*Previously, only the children of those who had experienced conversion could participate
*Reflected the decline of zealous piety among New Englanders

New cards
50

Great Awakening (1739-1744)

A sudden outbreak of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. One of the first events to unify the colonies.

New cards
51

Dominion of New England

1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.

New cards
52

Glorious Revolution (1688)

Bloodless overthrow of King James II. established William and Mary as the new leaders.

New cards
53

Navigation Acts

Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.

New cards
54

Mercantilism

An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought

New cards
55

Why did Europeans arrive on American Shores At All?

From the 1300s to the 1400s, European Kingdoms were changing significantly. They were going through the process of political unification and were developing a stronger and more centralized states that were governed by monarchs. One of the effects of this was the growing wealthy upper class that had a tast for luxury goods in Asia

New cards
56

Who controlled much of the land-based trade routes from Europe to Asia?

Muslims

New cards
57

Portugal

This country established a series of trading posts around Africa which historians called the Trading-Post Empire. This gained them a strong foot hold in the Indian Ocean Trade Network.

New cards
58

Maritime

To do with the sea.

New cards
59

Maritime Technology that the Portuguese used

Astrolabe, latin Sail, Stern Post Rudder

New cards
60

After Spain’s reconquest of Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula, what were the effects?

The reconquest let a fire in them to spread catholic christianity far and wide. The new power led them to seek new economic oppurtunities in the east.

New cards
61

Smallpox

Europeans brought this disease to the Americas and that was entirely novel to the native populations. Their immune systems couldn’t handle it and much of their population was decimated.

New cards
62

Feudalism

In the centuries prior to the exploration of the Americas, the societal and economic make of the European states were laregely organized by this system. Under this system peasants lived and worked under nobles in exchange for protection.

New cards
63

Capitalism

An economic system based on private ownership and free exchange.

New cards
64

Juan Guiness De Sepulveda

A priest that argued Native Americans were less than humans and deserved harsh treatment and labor work.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 182 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 28 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 54 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard89 terms
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard25 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard102 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard100 terms
studied byStudied by 100 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard124 terms
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard74 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard45 terms
studied byStudied by 50 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)