Biology 1010 Exam 4 (Durbak, Mizzou)

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Cell Division

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Cell Division

the process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells

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asexual reproduction

reproduction without the fusion of gametes

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sexual reproduction

reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete

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chromosome

a threadlike strand of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order

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histone

any of a group of basic proteins found in chromatin.

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cell cycle

  • Sequence of events that make up the life of a typical cell • ordered sequence of stages• preparatory and division phases • one cell to two identical cells

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What phase do cells spend most of their time in?

Interphase

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Interphase

includes the stages of the cell cycle in which cells spend their time preparing for cell division (G1, S, G2)

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G1 Phase

rapid cell growth and metabolism

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S phase

Synthesis, DNA replication occurs

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G2 Phase

production of new organelles, cell prepares for division

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G0

if a cell pauses between G1 and S phase. Cell doesn't divide, but can divide at any time

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When do chromosomes duplicate?

During S phase

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Sister chromatids

The two copies of the chromosomes fused at the center

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Centromere

a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape

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Before S phase

1 long strand of DNA, 1 copy of DNA molecule

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After S phase

2 separate strands of DNA, 2 copies of DNA molecule

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M Phase

mitotic phase when cells are actually dividing

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What are the two phases that occur during M phase?

Mitosis and cytokinesis

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Mitosis

the nucleus and its contents divide and are evenly distributed into two nuclei

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Cytokinesis

division of the cytoplasm and organelles into two parts

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Interphase

• Chromosomes are relaxed • Nuclear envelope is intact

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When do spindle fibers form?

During interphase/late G2

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Prophase

chromosomes condense into a clear "X" formation

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When does the mitotic spindle form?

Prophase

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Mitotic Spindle

structure made of microtubules (part of the cytoskeleton) that guides separation of chromosomes

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When does the nuclear envelope break down?

It breaks down during prophase

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Metaphase

spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of the chromosomes, and chromosomes line up at the center of the cell

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Anaphase

spindle fibers shorten, pulling sister chromatids to opposite sides of the cells

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Telophase

begins when the chromatids reach opposite sides of the cell

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Why is telophase opposite of prophase?

nuclear envelope reforms, chromosomes decondense, spindle fibers disappear

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When does cytokinesis begin?

during telophase

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Cleavage furrow

indentation of the cell's surface that begins the process of division

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Gamete

a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes

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What kind of cells are gametes?

They are haploid (1 copy of each chromosome)

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Somatic cells

include all the rest of the cells in the body

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Are somatic cells haploid or diploid?

Diploid

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What is a fertilized egg called?

Zygote

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Fertilization

where a haploid sperm fuses with a haploid egg to form a diploid zygote

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How many chromosome copies do sperm and egg cells contain?

ONE

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Are the chromosomes attached at the centromere after fertilization?

NO they are not attached

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What is each pair of identical chromosomes called?

A homologous pair/homologous chromosomes

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Meiosis

process of cell division in which 1 diploid cell forms 4 haploid cells

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What is this process?

<p>Meiosis</p>

Meiosis

<p>Meiosis</p>
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How many chromosomes do humans have?

23

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How many chromosomes do somatic cells have?

46 (2 copies of each)

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How many chromosomes do gamete cells have?

23 (1 copy of each)

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Karyotype

a way to display all of the chromosomes in a somatic cell

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Genetic trait

Any inherited characteristic of an organism that can be observed or detected somehow

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Invariant trait

are the same in the whole species (example: genetically, all humans are supposed to have two eyes)

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Variable trait

have different versions among individuals in a species (example: eye color)

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Physical Trait

affect characteristics that are easily observed

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Biochemical trait

effect things like metabolism and the different molecules made inside your cells. can be measured in different ways

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Behavioral trait

affect things often attributed to ‘personality’ –shyness, sensitivity to noise, etc

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Heredity

the transmission of traits from one generation to the next

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Genetics

the study of heredity

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Genes

specific nucleotide sequences in the DNA that provide instructions for making proteins

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What does each gene code for?

a single protein

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What is the basic unit of information for a trait?

a gene

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Allele

The variation in traits among individuals comes from slight differences in the DNA sequence of these genes

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How are genes passed on?

through sexual reproduction

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How many copies of each allele do humans have?

Two

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Homozygous

two identical alleles (dd, DD)

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heterozygous

two different alleles (Dd)

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Genotype

combination of alleles an organism has

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How are genotypes displayed?

In letters (DD, dd, Dd)

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Phenotype

physical appearance or measurable features of an individual that is the direct outcome of have that particular genotype

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How are phenotypes displayed?

by physical traits

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Dominant allele

(uppercase letters) determine the characteristic that shows

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Recessive allele

an allele that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its paired allele is identical

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Monohybrid cross

hybridization using a single trait with two alleles

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Law of segregation

members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair

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Punnett Square

shows the possible combinations of gametes and offspring for a cross

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What is the ratio in all dihybrid crosses?

9:3:3:1

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What is the dominant/recessive trait look like in the ratio of a dihybrid cross?

9 both dominant, 3 dominant recessive, 3 recessive dominant, 1 both recessive

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Dihybrid Cross

hybridization using two traits with two alleles each

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law of independent assortment

each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random

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Do the four daughter cells resulting from meiosis during a dihybrid cross carry the same alleles?

No, they will have different combinations of alleles

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Wild-type traits

The version of a character, or the trait that is seen the most often in nature

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Can wild-type traits be either dominant or recessive?

Yes, they can be either dominant or recessive

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Can genetic disorders be dominant or recessive?

yes

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What is the wild-type trait for a genetic disease?

Non-affected

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Carrier

people who are heterozygous (have one recessive allele and one dominant) but do not show symptoms of the disease

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Pedigree

a family tree that has information on how a particular trait has been passed down over generations

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Autosomes

chromosomes 1-22

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What is the 23rd pair of chromosomes called?

the sex chromosomes

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XX

female 23rd chromosome

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XY

male 23rd chromosome

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Are sex chromosomes inherited the same way that other genes are?

Yes, each gamete will contribute one half of the pair needed

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Sex-linked gene

gene located on a sex chromosome

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Where are most genes located?

On the X chromosome

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Recessive X linked trait

normal copy on one X chromosome masks the recessive disease allele on the other X chromosome in XX. does not mask copy in XY

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What provides the genetic code?

The arrangement of A, G, C, and T in the human genome

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What type of bonds connect the two strands of DNA to the bases?

hydrogen bonds

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Double helix

spiral structure formed by two strands of DNA nucleotides bound together

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Base pairing

A is always with T (DNA) or U (RNA) and G is always with C

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Semi-conservative mechanism

each molecule consists of one of the strands of the original DNA molecule and a new strand

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First step in DNA replication

Hydrogen bonds holding together the two strands of DNA are broken. The 2 strands are separated and the helix is unwound

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Second step in DNA replication

An enzyme called DNA polymerase “reads” the DNA sequence on one strand adding complementary nucleotides and helping to form the covalent bonds between them to form the new strand

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What type of bonds does DNA polymerase help form?

covalent bonds between the bases to form a new strand

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