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Study terms and definitions
Why is carbon so important?
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It makes up all living organisms
How many valence electrons are there in Carbon and why is it so important?
Carbon has 4 electrons therefore it can bond with many elements and make complex molecules
What are hydrocarbons?
Organic molecules made of carbon and hydrogen
What are isomers?
They are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties
What is a structural isomer?
Isomers that have different covalent arrangements of their atoms.
What is a cis-trans isomer?
Isomers that have the same covalent bonds but differ in their spatial arrangements
What are enantiomers?
Isomers that are mirror images or each other
Why are enantiomers important in pharmacy?
2 enantiomers of a drug may have different effects and usually only 1 isomer is biologically active
What is thalidomide?
It was prescribed to pregnant women in the 1950s and 60s to reduce morning sickness however it caused severe birth defects
List the order of biological organization (least to big)
Atom, molecule, and compound
What are the 4 macromolecules?
Carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins
What is a polymer?
A long molecule consisting of manly monomers
What is dehydration synthesis?
When H2O is removed in order to combine 2 molecules
What is hydrolysis?
When H2O is added to separate 2 molecules
What is the function of carbohydrates?
Main source of energy, short term energy storage, helps with structure
What elements do carbohydrates contain?
Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (1)
What are the building blocks of carbohydrates? Give 3 examples
Monosaccharide (glucose, fructose, and galactose)
What are 2 sugars bonded by? What are they called?
glycosidic linkage (covalent bonds) and they are called disaccharides
What are 3 examples of disacchardes?
Sucrose, maltose, and lactose
What is a polysaccharide?
Long chains of sugars bonded together
List 3 examples of polysaccharides
Starch, cellulose, and glycogen
What is the function of lipids?
Long term energy storage, structural support, aids metabolic reactions, and insulation
What elements does lipids contain?
Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen (2)
Are all lipids hydrophobic?
What are the monomers of lipids?
Glycerol + fatty acid
What are saturated fats?
Lipids that are solid at room temperature (ex. butter; animal sources)
What are unsaturated fats?
Lipids that are liquid at room temperature (ex. olive oil; plant sources)
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
Saturated fats have the max amount of hydrogen bonds and contain only single bonds. Unsaturated fats don't have the max amount of hydrogen bonds and has a double bond
What are the parts of a phospholipid?
Head (hydrophilic) and tail (hydrophobic)
What forms the cell membrane?
A phospholipid bilayer where there are are hydrophilic heads on the exterior and hydrophilic interior
What do steroids do?
They help form cell membranes (mainly giving it fluidity), making hormones, and sending signals
What is the function of proteins?
Structure, movement, energy source, transport, immunity, and enzyme activity
What elements does proteins contain?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur (sometimes)
What are the monomers of proteins?
What is the polymer of proteins?
Why is a protein's shape matter? How is it determined?
It determines how it functions; it's determined by the physical and chemical conditions of the protein's environment
What are enzymes?
A type of proteins that act as a catalyst, which speeds up chemical reactions
What are the 4 stages of protein structure?
Primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
Describe the primary structure
A chain of amino acids bonded together through peptide bonds; a slight change in amino acid sequence can affect the protein's structure and it's function
Describe the secondary structure
Hydrogen bonds between adjacent amino acids start happening; can either be an alpha helix which is a like a coil while a B pleated sheet is folded sheets that are parallel to each other
Describe the tertiary structure
The R groups will start to interact with each other and can cause irregular contortions while creating hydrophobic, di-sulfide, hydrogen, and ionic bonds
Describe the quaternary structure
2 or more polypeptide chain bonded together
What is denaturation? How can proteins be denatured?
When a protein unravels and loses it's original shape; ph and temperature changes
What is the functions of nucleic acids?
Storing genetic information (DNA or RNA) and stores ATP
What elements does nucleic acid contain?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
What are the monomers of nucleic acids?
What parts make up a nucleotide?
Sugar carbon ring, nitrogenous base, and phosphate group
What is the polymer of nucleic acids?
DNA and RNA
What are the 4 nitrogenous bases for DNA
Adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine
What are purines?
A nitrogenous base that consists of 2 rings composed of nitrogen and carbon (ex. Adenine & guanine)
What are pyrmidines?
A nitrogenous base that consists of one ring composed of nitrogen and carbon (ex. Cytosine & Thymine)
Which bases pair together?
A & T (double bond) C & G (triple bond)
What is the difference between deoxyribose and ribose?
Deoxyribose has 1 hydroxyl (OH) and 1 hydrogen (H) while Ribose has 2 hydroxyls (OH)
What is 5'3'?
5' is the start of the DNA/RNA strand and always is a phosphate. 3' is the end part of DNA/RNA strands and is always a hydroxyl
What are the nitrogenous bases for RNA
Adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil
What is the function of RNA?
What are the 3 types of RNA
Messenger RNA (mrna), Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and Transfer RNA (tRNA)
What is the function of mRNA?
Blueprint for construction of a protein
What is the function of rRNA?
Construction site where the protein is made
What is the function of tRNA?
Delivering the proper amino acids to the site at the right time
How is a peptide bond formed?
Through the carboxyl (COOH) and amino group (NH2)