AP Psych Bio Unit Complete

studied byStudied by 42 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Humans are what kind of system?

1 / 169

Studying Progress

0%
New cards
170
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
170 Terms
1
New cards

Humans are what kind of system?

Biopsychological

New cards
2
New cards

neurons

nerve cells that are the basic blocks of the nervous system

New cards
3
New cards

cell body

the part of a neuron that contains the nucleus; the cell's life-support center

New cards
4
New cards

dendrites

bushy extensions that receive and integrate messages, conducting impulses towards the body. They are "branching fibers"

New cards
5
New cards

axon

extension of the neuron which carries, via an action potential, information that will be sent on to other neurons, muscles or glands

New cards
6
New cards

What does a neuron look like?

shown in this picture

New cards
7
New cards

Depending on where it needs to stretch, the axon can vary in...

length

New cards
8
New cards

some axons are encased in a...

myelin sheath

New cards
9
New cards

myelin sheath

a fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed

New cards
10
New cards

What can occur if the myelin sheath degenerates?

Multiple Sclerosis (MS), in which we have slowed communication leading to eventual loss of muscle control

New cards
11
New cards

Glial cells

cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons

New cards
12
New cards

action potential

a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. It moves very slowly and can be stimulated by senses or neighboring neurons

New cards
13
New cards

The axon's surface is...

selectively permeable, meaning it is selective about what is allowed through its gates.

New cards
14
New cards

What happens when a neuron fires?

Depolarization occurs; channels in the axon's surface open up and positive and negative ions more in and out of the neuron.

New cards
15
New cards

Two types of neural signals

excitatory and inhibitory

New cards
16
New cards

threshold

the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

New cards
17
New cards

What happens if excitatory signals exceed inhibitory signals by a certain threshold?

an action potential will be triggered

New cards
18
New cards

refractory period

a period where subsequent action potentials cannot occur until the axon returns to its resting state

New cards
19
New cards

all-or-none response

a neuron's reaction of either firing (with a full-strength response) or not firing.

New cards
20
New cards

synapse

the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

New cards
21
New cards

Synaptic Gap

space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the receptors of the next neuron

New cards
22
New cards

Neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons, across the synapse and binding to receptor sites on the receiving neuron

New cards
23
New cards

reuptake

when excess neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the sending neuron

New cards
24
New cards

Endorphins

opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure. Opiate drugs can suppress its supply

New cards
25
New cards

Agonist

a molecule that increases a neurotransmitter's action

New cards
26
New cards

Antagonist

a molecule that, by binding to a receptor site, inhibits or blocks a response

New cards
27
New cards

nervous system

the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems. (made up of neurons communicating with neurotransmitters to make decisions)

New cards
28
New cards

central nervous system (CNS)

brain and spinal cord

New cards
29
New cards

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body.

New cards
30
New cards

Nerves

bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

New cards
31
New cards

sensory neurons

neurons that carry information from tissue and sensory receptors to the CNS

New cards
32
New cards

motor neurons

neurons that carry information from the CNS to muscles/glands

New cards
33
New cards

interneurons

neurons within the CNS that communicate internally and process information between sensory inputs and motor outputs

New cards
34
New cards

Two parts of the PNS

somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system

New cards
35
New cards

Somatic nervous system

controls the body's skeletal muscles

New cards
36
New cards

autonomic nervous system (ANS)

controls glands and muscles of internal organs

New cards
37
New cards

two parts of the ANS

sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system

New cards
38
New cards

sympathetic nervous system

arouses the body, mobilizing its energy

New cards
39
New cards

parasympathetic nervous system

calms the body, conserving its energy

New cards
40
New cards

the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems work together to maintain...

homeostasis

New cards
41
New cards

reflexes

simple, automatic responses to sensory stimuli, such as the knee-jerk response

New cards
42
New cards

what would happen if the top of your spinal cord were to be severed?

you'd be paralyzed from the waist down

New cards
43
New cards

endocrine system

the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

New cards
44
New cards

hormones

chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues

New cards
45
New cards

adrenal glands

a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress.

New cards
46
New cards

What hormones do the adrenal gland normally produce?

ephinephrine and norepinephrine

New cards
47
New cards

What do adrenaline and noradrenaline do?

Increase heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar. and helps trigger flight-or-fight response

New cards
48
New cards

pituitary gland

regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands. It also releases hormones that stimulate physical development and oxytocin, which enables contractions in females and stimulates social trust

New cards
49
New cards

Lesion

tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue

New cards
50
New cards

optogenetics

using light to control a limited population of neurons

New cards
51
New cards

EEG

An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.

New cards
52
New cards

MEG

measures magnetic fields from the brain's natural electrical activity

New cards
53
New cards

CT Scan

a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body

New cards
54
New cards

PET Scan

a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

New cards
55
New cards

mri

a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain

New cards
56
New cards

fMRI

A technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans.

New cards
57
New cards

brainstem

the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions

New cards
58
New cards

medulla

the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing

New cards
59
New cards

pons

Sits above medulla and helps coordinate movement

New cards
60
New cards

thalamus

the brain's sensory control center, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

New cards
61
New cards

reticular formation

a nerve network that travels through the brainstem into the thalamus and plays an important role in controlling arousal

New cards
62
New cards

cerebellum

the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance

New cards
63
New cards

limbic system

contains amygdala, hypothalamus, and hippocampus.

New cards
64
New cards

a neural system below the cerebral hemispheres associated with drives and emotions

Limbic system

New cards
65
New cards

amygdala

two lima bean-sized neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion

New cards
66
New cards

hypothalamus

A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.

New cards
67
New cards

hippocampus

A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.

New cards
68
New cards

reward deficiency syndrome

people crave whatever relieves negative feelings

New cards
69
New cards

frontal lobes

the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments

New cards
70
New cards

Parletal Lobe

lay at the top rear of the head and receive sensory input for touch and body position

New cards
71
New cards

occipital lobes

portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields

New cards
72
New cards

temporal lobes

portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear

New cards
73
New cards

motor cortex

an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

New cards
74
New cards

somatosensory cortex

area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations

New cards
75
New cards

association areas

areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking

New cards
76
New cards

plasticity

the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience

New cards
77
New cards

neurogenesis

the formation of new neurons

New cards
78
New cards

Corpus Callosum

The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.

New cards
79
New cards

Split Brain(s)

A condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers connecting them

New cards
80
New cards

Consciousness

Our subjective awareness of ourselves and our environment.

New cards
81
New cards

Cognitive Neuroscience

The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition, including perception, thinking, memory, and language.

New cards
82
New cards

Dual Processing

The principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks

New cards
83
New cards

Blindsight

A condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it.

New cards
84
New cards

Parallel Processing

Processing many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions

New cards
85
New cards

Sequential Processing

Processing one aspect of a problem at a time; generally used to process new information or to solve difficult problems.

New cards
86
New cards

Behavior Genetics

The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.

New cards
87
New cards

Heredity

The genetic transfer of characteristics from parents to offspring.

New cards
88
New cards

Environment

Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and the things around us.

New cards
89
New cards

Chromosomes

Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.

New cards
90
New cards

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)

A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes

New cards
91
New cards

Genes

The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing proteins.

New cards
92
New cards

Gene

The complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes.

New cards
93
New cards

Identical (monozygotic) twins

Develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms

New cards
94
New cards

Fraternal (dizygotic) Twins

Develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than ordinary brothers and sisters, but they share a prenatal environment.

New cards
95
New cards

Heritability

The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.

New cards
96
New cards

Interaction

The interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)

New cards
97
New cards

Molecular Genetics

The subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.

New cards
98
New cards

Molecular Behavior Genetics

The study of how the structure and function of genes interact with our environment to influence behavior.

New cards
99
New cards

Epogenetics

"Above" or "in addition to" (epi) genetics; the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change.

New cards
100
New cards

Evolutionary Psychology

The study of the evolution of behavior of the mind, using principles of natural selection.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 38 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 75 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1591 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(14)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard36 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard75 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard56 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard37 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard67 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard71 terms
studied byStudied by 99 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars