Human reproduction (BIOLOGY 2/7)

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Order of sperm cell traveling from male body to female body

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Order of sperm cell traveling from male body to female body

testes, sperm duct, prostate gland, urethra, penis --> vagina, cervix, uterus, oviduct

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female sex hormones

oestrogen

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male sex hormones

testosterone

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role of oestrogen in developing characteristics

change in behaviour, stimulates development of secondary sex characteristics, breast, hips, vagina and hair develop/grow

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role of testosterone in developing characteristics

change in behaviour, stimulates development of secondary sex characteristics, facial hair, chest, testes and penis develop/grow

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oestrogen in menstrual cycle

repairs lining of the uterus

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progesterone in menstrual cycle

keeps the lining of the uterus ready for implantation

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FSH in menstrual cycle

stimulates follicular growth (sac around egg cell) and estrogen secretion

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LH in menstrual cycle

stimulates ovulation to occur and development of corpus letuem in the remains of the follicle

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define ejaculation

the release of sperm from the testes after stimulation

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define copulation

sexual intercourse

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define conception

conceiving a child

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define fertilization

the process of combining the sperm cell with the egg cell

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define ovulation

release of the egg from the ovary

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difference in egg cell and sperm cell

egg cell is singular, while sperm is more.

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types of contraceptive

hormonal or non-hormonal

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example of natural contraceptive

timing or calendar method

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example of female contraceptive

pill, IUD, sterilisation, female condom

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example of male contraceptive

condom, vasectomy

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function of placenta

provides oxygen and nutrients to a growing baby

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function of umbilical cord

delivers nutrients and oxygen and removes the baby's waste

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function of amniotic sac and fluid

protects the fetus from injury

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characteristics of HIV

weakened immune system, no known cure

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characteristics of chlamydia

Discharge from urethra, itching, painful urination and often asymptomatic in women, antibiotics

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characteristics of syphilis

can affect the heart, brain and other organs, mother-fetus transmission and can be fatal if untreated, antibiotics in early stages

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characteristics of gonorrhoea

Discharge from urethra, painful urination and sometimes asymptomatic in women, antibiotics

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define gametes

reproductive cell of an animal (human)

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define zygote

a fertalized egg

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define embryo

early stages of development in the womb

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define puberty

process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction

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pituitary gland

part of the brain controlling growth and development

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define implantation

the attachment of the fertilized egg to the wall of the uterus

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corpus luteum

A sac for the egg cell which will eventually shrink and be absorbed

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follicle

the sac that releases an egg during ovulation

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menstrual cycle phases

menstruation, the follicular phase, ovulation and luteal phase.

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umbilical vein

carrys oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus

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umbilical artery

carry deoxygenated blood from fetus to the placenta

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male structure

bladder, seminal vesicles, testis, scrotum, urethra, prostate gland, vas deferens and penis

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female structure

vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries

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body temperature during menstrual cycle

increases at ovulation

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LH during menstrual cycle

increases at ovulation

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FSH during menstrual cycle

increases at ovulation

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progesterone during menstrual cycle

curves after ovulation

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estrogen during menstrual cycle

increases before ovulation, drops and curves after ovulation

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negative feedback results in

hormones decreasing

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positive feedback results in

hormones increasing

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male reproductive cell

sperm cells

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female reproductive cell

egg cell

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primary sex organs

testes and ovaries, which are stimulated by the pituitary glands during puberty

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