Chapter 1 Introduction: Matter, Energy, and Measurement

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Matter

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31 Terms

1

Matter

Anything that has mass and takes up space

<p>Anything that has mass and takes up space</p>
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2

States of matter

Solid, liquid, gas

<p>Solid, liquid, gas</p>
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3

Composition of matter

Element, compound, homogeneous mixture, heterogeneous mixture

<p>Element, compound, homogeneous mixture, heterogeneous mixture</p>
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4

Substance

Has distinct properties and a composition that does not vary from sample to sample

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5

Element

Substance which can not be decomposed into simpler substances

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6

Compound

Substance which can be decomposed to simpler substances because it is made up of more than one element

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7

The Law of Constant Composition

The relative number of atoms of each element in the compound is the same in any sample

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8

Mixture

exhibit properties of the substances that make them

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9

Homogeneous mixture or solution

has the same composition throughout the sample

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10

Heterogeneous mixture

varies in composition throughout a sample, components distinguishable

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11

Physical properties

Observed without changing a substance into another substance

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12

Chemical properties

Observed when a substance is changed into another substance

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13

Intensive properties

Independent of the amount of the substance present, i.e. colour

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14

Extensive properties

Dependent on the amount of substance present, i.e. mass, volume

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15

Physical changes

Changes in matter that do not change the composition of a substance

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16

Chemical changes

Changes in matter that result in a new substance

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17

Filtration

Solid substances are separated from liquids and solutions

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18

Distillation

Uses differences in boiling points to separate a homogeneous mixture into its components

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19

Chromatography

Uses differences in ability of substances to adhere to solid surfaces to separate a homogeneous mixture into its components

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20

Energy

Capacity to do work or transfer heat, Joule (J)

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21

Work

Energy transferred when a force is exerted on an object causing displacement

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22

Heat

Energy used to cause temperature of an object to increase

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23

Force

Any push or pull on an object

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24

Kinetic energy

Energy of motion, KE=1/2 x m x v^2

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25

Potential energy

Stored energy, depends on its relative position compared to other objects

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26

Glassware for measuring volume

knowt flashcard image
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27

Temperature

Hotness and coldness of an object K= *C + 273.15

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28

Exact numbers

Counter or given by definition

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29

Inexact or measured numbers

Depend on how they were determines, prone to equipment errors, human errors

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30

Precision

Measurement of how closely individual measurements agree with one another

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31

Accuracy

Measurement of how closely individual measurements agree with the correct or “true” value

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