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1

agricultural density

the ratio of farmers to the amount of arable land

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2

arithmetic density

the total number of people divided by the total land area

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3

carrying capacity

the population size that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the available resources

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4

census

a complete enumeration of a population

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5

child mortality rate

the number of deaths per thousand children in the first five years of their life

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6

contraception

the deliberate use of artificial methods or other techniques to prevent pregnancy

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7

crude death rate (cdr)

the total number of deaths in a year divided by every 1,000 people alive in the society

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8

crude birth rate (cbr)

the total number of live births in a year divided by every 1,000 people alive in the society

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9

demographic equation

starting population + change in population due to natural increase + change in a population due to migration

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10

demographic transition

the process of change in a society’s population from a condition of high CBR/CDR and low NIR to a condition of low CBR, CDR, NIR and higher total population

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11

demography

the scientific study of population characteristics

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12

dependency ratio

number of people under age 15 and over 64 compared to the number of people active in the work force

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13

doubling time

the number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase

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14

ecumene

the portion of Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement

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15

epidemiological transition

the process of change in the distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition

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16

infant mortality rate (imr)

the total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year of age divided by every 1,000 live births

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17

industrial revolution

a series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods

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18

life expectancy (longevity rate)

the average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions.

at birth - average years a newborn can be expected to live

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19

Thomas Malthus

British reverend who concluded that population was growing at a faster rate than productivity (overpopulation) in the late 1700s

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20

pro/anti-natalism

government policies the support either higher or lower birth rates respectively

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21

natural increase rate (nir)

the percentage growth of a population in a year (CBR-CDR)

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22

neomalthusians

believe that the population of the world is growing too quickly for the scale of agriculture production to keep up

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23

overpopulation

a situation in which the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support decent living environment

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24

physiological density

the number of people per unit area of arable land

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25

population agglomerations

cluster of people living in the same area

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26

population pyramid

a bar graph that represents the distribution of population by age and sex

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27

replacement fertility

level of fertility at which a population exactly replaces itself from one generation to the next

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28

sex ratio

number of males per 100 females in the population

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29

total fertility rate (tfr)

the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years (15-49)

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30

zero population growth

a decline in the TFR to the point where the NIR is 0

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