Biology Ch 8 Flashcards

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What are the three domains?

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1

What are the three domains?

Bacteria, Archaea (Prokaryotic cells), Eukarya

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2

List the classification from largest to smallest

Domain→Kingdom→Phylum→Class→Order→Family→Genus→Species

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3

What is the taxonomic scheme that we follow today?

The Linnaean System (classifies organisms into a hierarchy of groups based on their physical and genetic characteristics)

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4

What defines an organism as a vertebrate?

If it has a backbone or spinal column, and a notochord

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5

Using an organism’s scientific name how do you tell which ones are more closely related?

Organisms with the same genus name are more closely related than those with different genus names.

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6

List the five main vertebrate classes and the characteristics of each.

  • Mammals- Covered in hair, live births, mammary glands

  • Birds- wings, hard eggs

  • Reptiles- hard scaly skin, lay hard eggs, cold blodded

  • Amphibians- slimy smooth skin, lay soft eggs, live on land and in water (reproduce)

  • Fish- have scales, gills, lay eggs, live in water

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7

What is the highest level of organization currently used?

Domain

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8

What major characteristics separate the domains eubacteria and archaea from eukarya?

Eubacteria and archaea are prokaryotic cells. Eukarya are eukaryotic cells.

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9

As you go down from Domain to Species- do the organisms share more or less characteristics?

More

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10

Who was the man that developed modern classification?

Carolus Linnaeus (mid 1800’s)

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11
<p>a. Which derived characteristics separate hagfish from chimps?</p>

a. Which derived characteristics separate hagfish from chimps?

Jaws, Lungs, Claws/Nails, Fur, Mammary Glands

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12
<p>b. Which animals have jaws?</p>

b. Which animals have jaws?

Perch, Salamander, Lizard, Pigeon, Mouse, Chimp

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13
<p>c. Which two organisms are more closely related:</p><p>Hagfish and Perch OR Perch and Lizards?</p>

c. Which two organisms are more closely related:

Hagfish and Perch OR Perch and Lizards?

Hagfish and Perch

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14

What are the 7 Evidence of Evolution?

Comparative Anatomy:

  1. Vestigial Structures

  2. Homologous Structures

  3. Analogous Structures

Other:

  1. Biogeography

  2. Fossil Record

  3. DNA (best piece of evolution)

  4. Comparative Embryology

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15

Vestigial Structures

Definition: Structures that have no apparent function and appear to be residual parts from past ancestors (these structures can also be less elaborate rather than less functional)

Common Ancestor? Yes

Ex: Wisdom Teeth: Extra set of teeth that have no clear use

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16

Homologous Structures

Definition: Similar structures that have different functions

Common Ancestor? Yes

Ex: Coccyx (Tailbone), thought to have been fully formed tails

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17

Analogous Structures

Definition: Different structures that have similar functions

Common Ancestor? No

Ex: Birds/Insect wings

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18

Biogeography

Definition: The study of the geographic distribution of species and ecosystems through geological time

Common Ancestor? Yes

Ex: Dogs & Gray Wolves are in different parts of the world, but have common ancestors

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19

Fossil Record

Definition: Every fossil that exists (even the ones that we haven’t found yet)

Common Ancestor? Yes

Ex: Dogs & Wolves’ fossils show their homologous structures

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20

DNA

Definition: The more DNA organisms share, the more closely related they are

Common Ancestor? Yes

Ex: Dogs & Wolves share 99% of their DNA, which suggests common ancestory

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21

Comparative Embryology

Definition: A branch of embryology that compares embryos of different species (to see how closely related they are)

Common Ancestor? Yes

Ex: Dogs & Wolves look very similar during embryonic stages, suggesting common ancestory

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22

Are fossils common?

No

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23

What part of an organism is likely to be preserved in a fossil?

The hard parts- Bones, Teeth, Exoskeleton

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24

Which type of evidence supports adaptive radiation/divergent evolution?

Homologous Structures

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25

Which type of evidence supports convergent evolution?

Analogous Structures

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26

Which evidence is the only one that doesn’t support recent common ancestry?

Analogous Structures

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27

What evidence provides the most accurate idea of ancestry?

DNA

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28

Explain Darwin’s observations and how they relate to natural selection.

Darwin noticed trait variation and competition for resources within populations. He concluded that advantageous traits increase survival and reproduction, passing them to offspring. This process is called natural selection, and it causes gradual evolution.

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29

Explain how Darwin’s ideas are different than Lamarck’s

Darwin and Lamarck had different ideas about evolution. Darwin thought traits that helped organisms survive were more likely to be passed on, while Lamarck believed traits are acquired during an organism's life, and they could be passed down. Darwin also emphasized variation and competition in evolution, while Lamarck did not.

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30

Do individuals or populations evolve? Explain.

Populations- Individuals in a population vary, so some individuals are able to survive better and reproduce more, which evolves a population.

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31

What are the five Mechanisms of Evolution?

  1. Genetic Drift- Random (Bottleneck Effect & Founder Effect)

  2. Gene Flow- Random (Migration)

  3. Mutation- Random (Creates new alleles for population)

  4. Natural Selection- NOT Random (Based on traits suited for environment)

  5. Sexual Selection- NOT Random (Intersexual & Intrasexual)

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32

Which Mechanisms of Evolution are random?

Genetic Drift, Gene Flow, Mutation

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33

What are two types of Genetic Drift?

Bottleneck Effect & Founder Effect

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34

What are the three ways natural selection can affect a population?

Directional, Stabilizing, Disruptive

<p>Directional, Stabilizing, Disruptive</p>
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35

How is artificial selection different from natural selection?

Artificial Selection- Humans choose the traits that are passed on

Natural Selection- Environment chooses who survives/ reproduces

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36

In ostriches, there are 2 types: ones that run fast and those \n that run slowly. The fast birds can reach up to 40 miles an hour. Jackals love to eat ostrich, and they can reach speeds of up to 35-40 miles per hour. A flock of ostrich will lay approximately 10 eggs (each mother only lays 1), but many rodents break into the eggs and eat the fetus before they hatch. Identify the 5 factors of natural selection for the above example. (VISTA)

V: Ostriches that run fast and ostriches that run slow

I: How fast ostriches can run is an inheritance trait

S: Only a couple eggs per flock survive

T: Over time there will be more ostriches that run fast

A: Ostriches that run fast protect their eggs from the Jackals, so their eggs don’t get eaten

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37

What are the 3 steps during speciation?

  1. Gene Flow is interrupted

  2. Natural Selection and/or mutations lead to a build up of genetic differences

  3. Reproductive isolation is achieved- organisms can no longer reproduce fertile offspring with one another

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38

What evidence is used to determine if specification has occurred?

If the two populations can no longer produce viable offspring with one another

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39

What are the Prezygotic reproductive barriers?

  • Geographic

  • Behavioral

  • Temporal

  • Ecological

  • Mechanical

  • Gametic

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40

What are the Postzygotic reproductive barriers?

  • Hybrid Inviability

  • Hybrid Sterility

  • Hybrid Mortality

  • Hybrid Breakdown

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41

Geographic

Populations are separated by a physical barrier; live in different areas

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42

Behavioral

Populations have different mating rituals (calls or dances); pheromones don’t match

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Temporal

Populations’ timing of mating becomes different (nocturnal vs diurnal)

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Ecological

Populations live in different habitats

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45

Mechanical

Populations’ reproductive parts are not compatible

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46

Gametic

The gametes (egg/sperm) are not compatible

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47

Hybrid Inviability

Offspring is not able to mature into a healthy, fit adult

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48

Hybrid Sterility

Offspring is sterile (cannot reproduce)

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49

Hybrid Mortality

The egg is fertilized, but it cannot develop

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50

Hybrid Breakdown

At first the hybrids are fertile, but after a couple of generations, their offspring start to become sterile

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51

What are the 3 examples of coevolution of Earth’s features from the notes?

  1. Cyanobacteria preformed photosynthesis, which added lots of oxygen to the atmosphere and allowed for evolution

  2. Microbes made soil nutrient-rich, so plants could develop later

  3. Coral Reefs absorb some of the wave energy, which protects shorelines from erosion

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52

Coevolution

The process by which 2 species evolve in response to changes in each other

(ex: Orchids and Moths)

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53

Divergent Evolution/ Adaptive Radiation

Evolution from a common ancestor that results in diverse species adapted to different environments

*Often share homologous structures*

(ex: Dogs and Wolves)

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54

Convergent Evolution

Unrelated organisms come to resemble one another (Similarities due to environmental factors)

*Often share analogous structures*

(ex: Bird and Insect wings)

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55

Punctuated Equilibrium

The idea that evolution can occur in short spurts with large changes (periods of no change)

(ex: evolution of ape into man, (there were periods of no change))

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56

Gradualism

The idea that evolution occurs at a slow, gradual rate with small changes happening all the time

(ex: Whales)

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57

What era are we currently in? What is the dominant type of animal?

Cenozoic Era; Mammals

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58

Why do mass extinctions tend to lead to speciation?

Mass extinctions create new environments and allow surviving species to diversify and evolve. Dominant species may become extinct, which reduces competition, allowing subordinate species to thrive. The removal of certain species can lead to coevolutionary responses, driving speciation.

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59

How old do scientists believe Earth is?

4.6 Billion years old

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60

Allopatric Speciation

Speciation due to physical barriers

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61

Sympatric Speciation

Speciation in the same area (due to another type of barrier)

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62

Gene Pool

All the alleles in all the individuals that make up a population

  • Pool in which the next generation draws its genes

  • AA, Aa, aa (eye color, hair color, skin tone, etc)

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63

Clad

Group of organisms that share a common ancestor

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64

Mechanisms of Evolution (definition)

The 5 basic causes of evolution (change in allele frequencies)

  • Mutation, Genetic Drift (change in population due to chance), Gene Flow (migration), Non-Random Mating (sexual selection), Natural Selection

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65

Extinction

When a species no longer exists in any part of the world

(more than 99% of all species that have ever lived are now extinct)

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66

Microevolution

Changes within a species (dozens or hundreds of generations)

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Macroevolution

Origin of new species (much longer periods of time)

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68

Artificial Selection

When humans determine the characteristics that survive and reproduce

  • Result- various breeds of animals and plants that we have developed

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69

Biological Species Concept

A species is a population or groups of populations that have the following characteristics:

  1. Ability to breed with one another in nature

  2. Produce viable, fertile offspring

  3. Cannot successfully interbreed with members of another species

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70

Isolated Mechanisms

Ways populations become separated long enough to become different species

  • Behavioral, Geographic, Temporal

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Population

Group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at the same time

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Fitness (evolutionary)

Describes an organism’s reproductive success and how well the organism is adapted to its environment

  • ability of an organism to survive and reproduce

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73

Genetic Drift

Change in Gene Pool due to chance

(smaller the population, the more effect genetic drift has)

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Founder Effect

Few individuals colonize a new habitat

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75

Bottleneck Effect

A population is drastically reduced quickly, which reduces the gene pool

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76

Gene Flow

Exchanging genes with another population (Migration)

  • Fertile individuals migrate between the populations

  • Can eventually combine the two populations

  • Causes diversity to increase within a population

  • Decreases diversity between populations

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77

Sexual Selection

How mates are picked for mating

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Intersexual

Between two sexes, choose a mate based on behavior or physical trait

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79

Intrasexual

Within a sex, competition among males for females

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80

Mutation

Direct conversion of one allele to another

*Rare event*

(Does not occur in response to environmental changes)

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