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1

How does a logistic distribution compare to normal distribution?

look similar BUT shape on the edges are different

aka homoscedasticity

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2

When the dependent variable is continuous we use linear regression, and when the dependent variable is discrete we use _________________.

logistic regression

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3

What are the pros and cons of clinical categories?

pros: quickly make distinction bc we have cutoffs

cons: can be misleading

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4

For binary logistic regression it is the appropriate method when an outcome variable consists of only ____ categories.

2 (yes/no)

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5

Probabilities must be constrained between ___ and ____ in binary logistic regression.

0 and 1

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6

What is logit or â€ślog-oddsâ€ť ?

the natural log of the odds of the event of interest occurring

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7

In logistic regression we cannot use OLS like multiple regression, so instead we use what?

MLE

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8

In MLE we are looking at the ____________ ability for a variable to effect an outcome.

maximum

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9

In logistic regression, we cannot use R^{2} like multiple regression, instead we use what?

chi-square

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10

Is binary logistic regression nonparametric or parametric?

nonparametric

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11

In binary logistic regression, in the confidence interval if it crosses what number is the variable insignificant?

1

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12

What does it mean when a regressor has a coefficient estimate that has a negative sign?

variable decreases probability

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13

What is this equation used for?

Binary logistic regression

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14

When is survival analysis used?

when the research question is WHEN something will occurâ€¦ not IF

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15

Survival Analysis is used a lot in what setting in medicine? FYI

cancer treatments

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16

In logistic regression, the coefficients are hard to interpret, so instead what do we look at?

odds ratio

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17

What are the 3 components of a survival analysis?

Kaplan-Meier Method/Curve

A Cox Proportional Hazard Ratio

log-rank test that produces a p-value

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18

The Kaplan-Meier method and cox proportional hazard ratio all MUST account for the possibility of what?

censoring

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19

What does censoring/ censored data mean in this context?

This occurs when the time to event occurrence is not precisely known for individuals

BASICALLY: lack of data

Ex: If a patient drops out of a study, we donâ€™t know what happened to them? did they die? survive? etc.

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20

The Kaplan-Meier Method summarizes what?

the probability of survival over time estimated from a sample

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21

How is hypothesis testing done in the Kaplan-Meier Method?

logrank test

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22

What is a hazard?

risk of event occurrence at time t

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23

A hazard function is hazard for an event over _______.

time

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24

This is the equation for a hazard function. What would I do to that equation to create the cox proportional hazards regression model?

Just take the natural log (ln)!!!

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25

In Cox Proportional Hazards Regression Model, what happens is B>0?

an **increase** in the predictor leads to an **increase** in the hazard (or **decrease** in survival)

Ex: cigarettes smoked a day. If I INCREASE the predictor (# of cigarettes), that leads to an increase in hazard (lung cancer)

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26

In Cox Proportional Hazards Regression Model, what happens is B<0?

an **increase** in the predictor leads to an **decrease** in the hazard (or **increase** in survival)

Ex: exercise

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