Psychology Exam 3 (CH 2 & 3)

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Acetylcholine

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Acetylcholine

A neurotransmitter responsible for memory and muscle contractions.

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Dopamine

A neurotransmitter responsible for pleasure, controlling movements, and thinking.

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Norepinephrine

A neurotransmitter responsible for general arousal.

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Serotonin

A neurotransmitter responsible for emotional arousal, sleep, and regulating appetite.

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GABA

A neurotransmitter responsible for calming anxiety. It is also an inhibitory neurotransmitter.

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Endorphins

A neurotransmitter responsible for altering pain perceptions.

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Agonist (type of psychoactive drug)

  • Increases the effects of neurotransmitters

  • Attach to receptor site and mimic

  • Blocks reuptake of neurotransmitters

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Antagonist (type of psychoactive drug)

  • Decreases the effects of neurotransmitters

  • Attach to receptor site and stops (ex. botox)

  • Degrades enzymes

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What does the central nervous system consist of?

  • Brain

  • Spinal cord

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What does peripheral nervous system consist of?

  • Somatic Nervous System

  • Autonomic Nervous System

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What is the Somatic Nervous System responsible for?

Responsible for voluntary muscle movement.

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What is the Autonomic Nervous System responsible for?

Responsible for involuntary muscle movements (ex. heart) and gland secretions.

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What does the Autonomic Nervous System consist of?

  • Sympathetic Nervous System

  • Parasympathetic Nervous System

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What is the Sympathetic Nervous System responsible for?

Quickly generating energy in emergency situations (called the gas pedal)

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What is the Parasympathetic Nervous System responsible for?

Slowing your body down (called the brake pedal)

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How can lesions be used to study the brain?

Compare what functions are lost to where the injury happened.

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How can stimulation be used to study the brain?

Increasing activity (sometimes by an electrical current to brain while they are awake)

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EEG

Electroencephalogram (studies brain waves)

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What kinds of Imaging are used to study the brain?

  • MRI

  • CT Scan

  • PET Scan

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Medulla (Hindbrain)

Responsible for survival functions. (breathing and heart rate)

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Pons (Hindbrain)

  • Coordinates info from one side of the brain to another

  • Regulates sleep

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Cerebellum (Hindbrain)

Regulates balance and coordination

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Reticular Formation (Hindbrain)

  • Connects hindbrain to forebrain

  • Acts as an alert system

  • Controls consciousness

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Thalamus (Forebrain)

  • Sends info from senses to appropriate place

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Hypothalamus (Forebrain)

Regulates hunger, thirst, and body temperature

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Limbic System (Forebrain)

  • Amygdala: Stores and regulates emotions

  • Hippocampus: Gateway to memory

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Cerebrum (Forebrain)

Sophisticated functions (ex. language)

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Cortex (Forebrain)

Outer layer

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Corpus Callosum (Forebrain)

Separates left and right brain, allowing for communication

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Frontal Lobe

  • Voluntary movement/ goal-directed behavior

  • Executive Function (less impuslive)

  • Matures fully at 25

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Occiptial Lobe

Vision

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Parietal Lobe

Taste and touch

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Temporal Lobe

Hearing, Balance, equilibrium

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Synethesia

Mixed up senses, signals get sent to wrong part of the brain

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Right brain = ?

Creativity

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Left brain = ?

Logic

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What percent of people are right-handed?

90%

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What percent of people are left-handed?

7-8%

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What percent of people can use both hands?

2-3%

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Right handed people tend to live shorter lives or longer lives than those who are left handed?

Right handed people tend to live longer lives than those that are left handed.

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Why might it be helpful to split corpus collosum?

Procedure is done for those who have seizures.

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In the endocrine system, what acts a messenger?

Hormones act as messengers in the endocrine system.

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How do hormones travel?

Through the bloodstream

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Where do hormones come from?

They are secreted by glands

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Pituitary Gland

Responsible for secreting growth hormones

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Pineal Gland

Responsible for secreting melatonin

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Thyroid Gland

Responsible for secreting thyroxine. (regulates metabolism)

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Adrenal Gland

Responsible for secreting

  • epinephrine

  • norepinephrine

  • cortisol

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Which hormones are considered stress hormones?

  • Epinephrine

  • Norepinephrine

  • Cortisol

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Gonads

Responsible for secreting

  • Androgens (ex. testosterone)

  • Estrogens (ex. estrogen)

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Genes

Basic building block of heredity

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How many pairs of chromosomes do humans have?

23

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Genes are...

Segments of DNA

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Genotype

Genetic code/ instructions (ex. male genotype is XY)

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Phenotype

Physical appearance that the genotype codes for

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Monozygotic Twins

  • Identical twins.

  • They share 100% of the same genetic info.

  • Share same egg, 2 sperm fertilize it.

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Dizygotic Twins

  • Fraternal twins.

  • They share 50% of the same genetic info.

  • 2 different eggs get fertilized at the same time.

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Twin Studies

Compare genetic factors to environmental factors to see what traits are genetic and which are environmental. (nature vs nurture)

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