PSYCH EXAM 2

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Evolutionary psychologists

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Evolutionary psychologists

  • evolution of mind and behavior follows Darwin’s theory of natural selection ex:inherited fear of snakes -focus on universal human tendencies. One prominent area is the differences between men and women

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Social Connectedness

women tend to prefer social connections with others, whereas men prefer independence ■ When looking for someone to confide, both tend to prefer women

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Aggression

men are more physically aggressive than women ■ More likely to engage in violent crime ■ Male killing male is 20 x more likely than women-women killing ■ In all cultures, fighting, hunting, war, are seen as male

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Social Dominance

■ Men tend to be more dominant in social settings than women ■ Men in groups tend to letter opinions and take leadership positions ■ Women in groups tend to be supportive and seek opinions ■ Men leaders are bossy, women are more democratic

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Sexuality

Men tend to initiate sexual activity ■ Respond more easily to visual sexual stimulus ■ Men are more likely to interpret friendliness as attraction ■ Evolutionary psychologists say that the sexual tension arises b/c of competing sexual strategies for reproductive success ■ In terms of seeking partners, men can offer status, while they seek looks. Women offer looks, and seek status

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Behavioral genetics

ask how genes and environment combine to produce behavioral differences

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Twin Study

●Are identical twins more similar in behavior than fraternal twins. → answer is yes ● Identical twins are more likely to be influenced by sibling divorce than fraternal twins ● Genes may be important, but identical twins in the same environment are often treated the same

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Alzheimer’s Disease

■ Identical twins (60%), Fraternal twins (30%) chance ■ Characteristics: ● Plaques: beta amyloid on tips of neuron branches ● Tangles: shriveled protein filaments ● Atrophy: loss of brain tissue

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Heritability

extent to which differences in traits are due to differing genes ● For IQ: ranges b/w 50-70%

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Adoption studies

2 families are created ■ A. Adoptive parents - same env, different genes ■ B. Biological parents - same genes, different env ■ Is an adopted child more like the adoptive or biological parents? ● For traits such as temperament or IQ, kids are more biological

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Prenatal influences

males and females are indistinguishable until 8 weeks after conception when Y chromosome switches on production of testosterone which causes creation of testes and external genitals ●Genetic Male → no testosterone → female genitals ●Genetic Female → testosterone → male genitals ● After birth, environment influences testosterone levels ● Ex: dad drop. Test levels drop after fatherhood ● Bruce Reimer ○ Went from Bruce to Brenda to David

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Postnatal influences

Imitation of role models and the rewards and punishments from following these role models

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Psychophysics

psychological study of sensation

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Absolute threshold

minimum energy required to detect a stimulus half of the time ○ Subliminal sensation - right below the threshold

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The Ear

Must detect 2 properties of sound waves ■ 1. Amplitude ■ 2. Wavelength: ●Long wave → low freq → low pitch ●Short wave → high freq → high pitch

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Auditory Sensory Transduction (the ear)

has 5 steps: ■ 1. Sound waves flow down ear canal and vibrate the eardrum at the frequency of the sound

■ 2. The vibration from the eardrum is transmitted to the 3 smallest bones in the body: hammer, anvil, stirrup, all in the middle ear

■ 3. Vibration of the stirrup is transmitted to the cochlea (snail shaped structure in the inner ear) through its oval window

■ 4. The cochlea vibration causes a traveling wave along the basilar membrane which is lined with neurons called hair cells where the wave peaks. Neurotransmitters are released; triggering an action potential

■ 5. The hair cells synapse with the auditory nerve carrying the neural message through a cascade of synapses to the auditory cortex i the temporal lobe

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The ear (cont.)

●The pitch of a sound is determined by where on the basilar membrane the hair cells fire ■Close to the back (near the oval window) → high pitch ■Close to the apex → low pitch

●Loudness determined by # of hair cells that fire

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Causes of hearing loss with the loss of hair cells

■ 1. Diseases: ● Tinnitus: ringing in the ears. Can be caused by food allergies, aspirin, very loud sudden sound ■ 2. Aging (presbycusis) ● Loss of high frequency sounds with age. Worse for men ■ 3. Noise-induced hearing loss ● Decibels - how we measure intensity of sound. ● Prolonged exposure to sounds > 85 dB causes permanent hearing loss

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The eye

○Wavelength → color ■ Short wavelength - blue ■ Long wavelength - red ■ Med wavelength - green

○Amplitude → brightness ■Large amp → bright colors ■Small amp → dark colors

○ The light waves enter the eye through the pupil, size of which is determined by iris

○ Pupil size determined by: ■ Amount of light: expands in low light, contracts in bright light ■ Emotion: dilates with interest in someone or something

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Accommodation (the eye)

the process by which the lens changes shape to bend light rays so the image is in focus on the retina

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Myopia (the eye)

nearsightedness. The eyeball is too long and/or the lens/cornea bend too much, making the image in focus in front of the retina, instead of on it. Caused by too much time indoors. Far objects are blurry ● Solutions ○ Concave lens - diverge the light to bring into focus ○ LASIK

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Farsightedness (hyperopia) (the eye)

Eyeball is too short and/or the lens/cornea doesn’t bend the light enough so the image is in focus behind the retina. Near objects are blurry ● Solutions ○ Reading glasses (convex lens)

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Rods vs Cones (the eye)

Number ● Cones: 6 million ● Rods: 120 million ■ Location ● Cones: Center of retina (fovea) ● Rods: Periphery ■ Sensitivity to low light ● Cones: low ● Rods: high ■ Color? ● Cones: Yes ● Rods: No ■ Detail: ● Cones: Yes ● Rods: No

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Pathway (the eye)

Rods/cones → bipolar cells → ganglion cells → optic nerve (axons of ganglion cells, blind spot) → brain

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The brain does not process whole images but is specialized to analyze the different features of the visual scene which are _____? (the eye)

■ Shape ■ Motion ■ Depth ■ Color

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To experience color, the eye and brain use 2 systems which are ________? (the eye)

  1. Trichromatic System: there are 3 cones. L cones (red), M cones (green, most likely to be defected), and S cones (blue). Colors are mixed using additive color mixing → produces the rainbow of colors ■ Deuteranopes - see the spectrum as shades of yellows and blues

  2. Opponent-Process system ■ Reds vs. greens ■ Blues vs. yellows ■ Color cells in the brain that give a positive response to red/blue give a negative response to green/yellow

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Selective attention (the eye)

  • only one interpretation is possible at a time. Perception selects one interpretation

  • we focus our awareness on a particular perception

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Cocktail party effect (the eye)

being able to pay attention to one specific person’s voice in a crowd of people

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Principles of grouping (the eye)

the rules for assembling elements 1.proximity 2.similarity 3.closure

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binocular cues (the eye)

require both eyes. Retinal disparity is when the two eyes have different views of the image, and the brain fuses them together

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Monocular cues (the eye)

only one eye required (pictorial cues) ■1. Relative size: objects of similar size → smaller image seems farther away ■ 2. Interposition: object that is blocking another object seems closer ■ 3. Relative height: higher objects perceived as farther away ■ Texture gradient: As objects change from big and scattered to small and compacted, we perceive as farther.

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Relative Motion (the eye)

as we move through a scene, objects beyond our fixation (where we’re staring) appear to move with us slowly, whereas objects in front of fixation appear to move away from us quickly.

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Linear Perspective (the eye)

whenever a 3D scene is projected on a 2D surface (like a painting canvas), parallel lines in scene converge into a vanishing point on the horizon

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Perceptual Constancy (the eye)

The experience of the world staying the same despite constant changes to the stimulation of our sensory receptors ○ Shape Constancy: Our perception of shape stays constant despite changes in the angle of viewing ○ Size Constancy: Experiencing the size of an object as unchanging despite changes in the distance of viewing.

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ponzo illusion (the eye)

Top bar seems longer because we perceive it as farther away yet casting the same size as the lower bar on the retina

<p>Top bar seems longer because we perceive it as farther away yet casting the same size as the lower bar on the retina</p>
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Miller Lyer illusion (the eye)

we perceive the left line as longer than the right line because it resembles an inside corner which we see as farther away.

<p>we perceive the left line as longer than the right line because it resembles an inside corner which we see as farther away.</p>
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Perceptual adaptation (the eye)

our ability to alter our perception based on new experiences.

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Perceptual set (the eye)

predisposition to see the world one way and not another

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Perception (the eye)

○ Bottom-up processing: sensations, stimulation of our sensory receptors ○ Top-down processing: experiences, expectations, assumptions

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Circadian Rhythm

a pattern of bodily function that happens on a daily basis.

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NREM 1 (Stage 1 sleep)

● Lightest stage of sleep ● EEG shows theta waves ● Heart rate falls, blood pressure falls, but easy to wake up ● Muscle jerks

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NREM 2 (Stage 2 sleep)

● First definitive stage of sleep ● Harder to wake up ● EEG shows sleep K-complexes and spindles (burst of activity). Indicate how well you’re able to maintain sleep ● Sleep talking

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NREM 3 (Sleep 3)

● EEG shows large, slow delta waves ○ Slow-wave sleep ○ Deep sleep ● Very difficult to wake one up ● Disoriented upon waking ● Heart rate very slow ● Blood pressure very low ● Sleep walking, bed wetting ● Night terrors (different from nightmares) ● As night goes on, NREM 3 gets progressively shorter

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REM Sleep (rapid eye movement)

● EEG shows large, fast beta waves ● Increased blood flow to the brain ● Increased heart rate and blood pressure ● Paralysis of the limbs. Paradoxical sleep ● Sleep paralysis ● Eyes moving underneath lids signifies the onset of a dream ● Genital arousal ● Nightmares ● Gets progressively longer as night goes on

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Insomnia

■ Affects 15% of adults, more women than men ■ Persistent problems falling or staying asleep ■ Behavioral management recommended: ● Restrict time in bed ● Only go to bed when feeling sleepy ● Avoid napping

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Narcolepsy

■ Feeling sleepy all the time, and sometimes experience sleep attacks ■ Often brought my stress or strong emotions ■ 1 in 1000 suffer ■ No cure or remission of symptoms

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Sleep Apnea

■ Person stops breathing for minute-long periods throughout the night ■ 1 in 25 adults suffer, mostly overweight, middle-aged men ■ Mask helps breathing

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Night terror

■ Kids wake up terrified ■ Fall back to sleep, no memory the next day ■ NREM 3 ■ Runs in families

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explain random activity during sleep

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latent

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inner corner

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unconscious

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bottom-up; expect to see; top-down

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alertness

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theta

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NREM 2

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converge; vanishing point

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angle from which we view the object

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muller lyer illusion

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perceptual adaptation

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L

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continuity

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refuse to cross to the clear side

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sensations organize into perceptions by rules

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his pupils dilate

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little time outdoors

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rods

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photoreceptors-> bipolar cells -> ganglion cells

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environment affects expression

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turn off methyl groups

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does not fall into the category of male or female

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biological factors

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self esteem

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women;women

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matches in behavior

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differences; commonalities

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