hunds rule

within a sublevel, electrons fill orbitals one at a time before pairing

aufbau rule

electrons fill the lowest energy orbitals levels first

bohr model

energy of a photon depends on the difference in energy levels

quantum

the amount of energy needed to move from one energy level to another

are electrons particles or waves

both due to the quantum theory

orbital

defined as a region in space where there is a high probability (90 percent) of finding an electron

n=1

is the closest to the nucleus (low energy)

n=2

is further than n=1 (slightly more energy)

distance in energy levels and N

inversely proportional

as the distance in energy between energy levels..... N increases

decreases

each s orbital holds

2

each p orbital holds

6

each d orbital holds

10

each f orbital holds

14

hunds rule is also called

empty bus seat rule

ions..... electrons to become stable

gain or lose

how do we see light

energy levels come back down and move simultaneously through space

bohr model

he thought the electrons traveled in fixed orbits around the nucleus this isn't actually true

heisnburg/ quantum theory

he said it's impossible to see the velocity and position at the same time

pauli exclusion

no more than two electrons in an atom can copy the same orbitals