Chapter 30: Ecology and Populations

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53 Terms

1

LDCs

________ have a dramatic growth rate and the majority of people live in poverty.

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2

Dandelion

________ is more likely to withstand a local decimation than bears because it matures quickly, produces many offspring at one time, and has seeds dispersed widely by wind.

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3

Mongolia

________ has a low population density of 0.25 persons per square kilometer.

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4

Bangladesh

________ has a high population density of over 1, 000 persons per square kilometer.

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5

Demographic Characteristics

________ affect whether a population achieves biotic potential, including availability of resources, number of offspring per reproductive event, chances of survival until age of reproduction, how often each individual reproduces, and age at which reproduction begins.

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6

Density Independent Factors

________ regulate population size, which is large enough to survive an event that threatens to annihilate it.

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7

Ecology

________ is one of the two biological sciences of most interest to the public today, the other being genetics.

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8

Ecologists

________ are studying the growth of a population of insects that can infest and take over an area.

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9

Earths

The biosphere is the zone at the ________ surface- air, water, and land- where life exists.

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10

Population Studies

________ can assist conservationists and others trying to preserve the biospheres biodiversity.

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11

Shelter

Food, water, ________, and space are important resources for populations.

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12

Ecological Principles

________ help us understand the importance of a functioning biosphere for our survival.

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13

Rapid Growth Declines

________ when resources become scarce and population levels off at carrying capacity of environment.

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14

Predation

________ is when one organism, the predator, eats another, the prey.

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15

Competition

________ occurs when organisms compete for limited resources, which can limit access to resources necessary for survival, reproduction, or other aspects of an organism's life cycle.

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16

Ecological Studies

________ offer information key to the survival of all species, present and future.

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17

Extinction

________ is the total disappearance of a species or higher group.

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18

MDCs

________ consume a much larger proportion of Earth's resources than LDCs.

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19

Bar Diagrams

________ are used to depict age structure.

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20

Particular Locale

A community consists of all the various populations in a(n) ________.

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21

Biotic Potential

________ is the maximum growth rate of a population under ideal conditions.

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22

Industrial Revolution

The ________ brought an increase in food and medicine production and a decrease in the death rate.

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23

Organismal Ecologists

________ study individual organisms and their adaptations to a particular environment.

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24

Conservation Biology

________ is a discipline of ecology that studies biodiversity.

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25

Replacement Reproduction Rate

The ________ is often slightly greater than two children per couple due to mortality.

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26

Tree Seedlings

________ show a much higher population density than do mature trees.

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27

Opportunistic Species

________ exhibit exponential growth, are small in size, mature early, have a short life span, provide limited parental care, and have a high dispersal capacity.

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28

Environmental Resistance

________ includes limited food supply, accumulation of waste products, increased competition, and predation.

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29

Birthrate

________ exceeds death rate if prereproductive and reproductive individuals outnumber postreproductive individuals.

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30

Mountain Gorilla

The ________ has a restricted geographic range, narrow habitat tolerance, and small local populations, making it very vulnerable to extinction.

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31

Natural History

________ is the discipline dedicated to observing and describing organisms in their environment.

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32

Population Growth

________ is causing extreme pressure on social organization, Earth's resources, and the biosphere.

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33

Replacement Reproduction

________ still results in population growth if there are more young women entering the reproductive years than there are older women leaving them.

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34

Wildlife Species

________ are integral to a well- functioning biosphere, which is crucial for human life.

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35

Logistic Growth

________ has practical applications, such as maintaining fish population size in the exponential phase for continuous food source and reducing carrying capacity to limit pest growth.

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36

Resource Partitioning

________ is a way to reduce competition for food, where different age groups of a species use different food sources.

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37

Human Population Densities

________ are highest along the coasts on every continent.

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38

Post-Reproductive Individuals

Population is divided into prereproductive, reproductive, and ________.

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39

Population Age Structure

________ is divided into three groups: prereproductive, reproductive, and postreproductive.

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40

Organisms

A group of _______ make up a population.

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41

Population

The number of _______ in a given area at a given time.

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42

Community

A group of _______ interacting with each other and their environment.

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43

Ecosystem

A _______ is a community of organisms and their environment.

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44

Carrying Capacity

The maximum number of _______ that an environment can support indefinitely.

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45

Replacement Reproduction

The number of _______ needed to replace a population.

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46

Resources

Anything that _______ need to survive and reproduce.

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47

Population Density

The number of _______ per unit area.

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48

Exponential Growth

A period of _______ is when a population grows rapidly.

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49

Density-Independent

A factor that affects _______ regardless of population density.

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50

Density-Dependent

A factor that affects _______ in relation to population density.

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51

Predation

The interaction between a _______ and its prey.

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52

Life History

The _______ of an organism is the pattern of its growth, development, and reproduction

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53

Equilibrium Species

A _______ is a species that maintains a relatively constant population size over time.

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