History Term 4 and 3

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The United Nations

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The United Nations

An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.

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a social construct

an idea that has been created and accepted by the people in a society

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The Atlantic Charter

British and American statement of goals for fighting World War II

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Four freedoms

freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from want, freedom from fear

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Atlantic Charter (1941)

an official document that explains a group or nation's rights and responsibilities. it outlined the rights that all humans should have.

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UNO objectives

  • maintain peace and security

  • work together to reduce poverty, disease, and reduce illiteracy and to encourage respect for others basic rights

  • develop friendly relations among nations

  • to be a centre to help nations achieve these goals

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Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)

adopted in 1948 by UNO outlined the basic human rights that all people in the world should have, regardless if who they are or any other discriminating factor.

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Racism

Belief that one race is superior to another

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Race

A group of human beings who share similar physical traits.

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Racial segregation

separation from society because of race

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Segregation in land ownership

-black people only owning land in reserves

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reserves (homelands)

areas that were set aside where black South Africans were allowed to own land

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Colour Bar Act 1926

skilled jobs were reserved for white workers only and black workers could only get unskilled or semi-skilled jobs

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Civilised Labour Policy

the policy of the government in the 1920s and 1930s which reserved skilled jobs for white workers.

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Pass system

form of influx control because blacks were seen as only temporary residents of a town.

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The Native Representation Act (1936)

to represent black South Africans interest but in reality had no power as the government did not have to listen to its advice

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Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act(1949)

-made marriage between white people and people if other races illegal.

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Immortality Act (1950)

Forbade sexual relations between whites and those of another race

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Population Registration Act (1950)

Categorised everyone in South Africa into racial groups

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Group Areas Act (1950)

divided cities into racially-based areas

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Native Abolition of Passes Act (1952)

-forced every black person over the age of 16 to carry a pass -if a black person lost their job they had 72 hours to find a new job before they were required to leave the city

  • if a person could not produce their passbook when police demanded it, they were fined or imprisoned

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Pass

a book that contains all of a person's personal details, as well as their job and employrr

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Separate Amenities Act (1953)

the act stated that facilities provided for different races

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Bantu Education Act (1953)

created a separate, inferior education system for black students. it's purpose to make sure that Black South Africans would only ever be able to work as unskilled and semi-skilled labourers

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Defiance Campaign positive consequences

  • had over 8000 people arrested

  • huge increase in the ANC's membership from 7000-100000

  • Led to formation of groups like The coloured people's congress & A congress Alliance

  • led to international solidarity movement (civil rights movement in USA under Matin Luther King

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Diafiance Campaign negative consequences

  • did not change the NP's laws

  • people could be arrested for no reason

  • newspapers were CENSORED

  • people were BANNED

  • Public Safety Act 1953 = allows government to decide a state of emergency at any time

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Treason Trial effect

to take the leaders away from a movement and to make it ineffective

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Formation of PAC

  • led by Robert Sobukwe

  • broke away from the ANC

  • rejected ANC's policy if non-racialism

  • struggle: a national struggle against white domain

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Sharpville Massacre date

21 March 1960

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Sharpville Massacre

Police fired on peaceful protest against pass laws, killing 69

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Short-term Consequences of Sharpville massacre by resistance movements

  1. massive stay away from work

  2. anti-pass demonstrations continued

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Short-term Consequences of Sharpville massacre by apartheid government

  1. over 18000 demonstrators arrested

  2. Verwoerd declared a state of emergency -detention without trial -gatherings over 10 people forbidden

  3. 1 month later ANC & PAC banned

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Long-term consequences by resistance movements

  • many went into exile to avoid arrest

  • others took the struggle underground

  • ANC & PAC adopted violent methods of struggle after much debate

  • formed secret armed resistance groups

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Sabotage Campaign

Aim: to overthrow SA government In first 18 months they orchestrated 200 acts of sabotage

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What was the government's response to the armed struggle?

Aim: to eliminate future resistance

  • police given power to crush resistance -arrested 1000s of people

  • crushed poqo -90 Days detention Act

  • Rivonia Trial

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90 Days Detention Act

arrested without a charge, and kept in jail for up to 90 days; then renewed to 180 days

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Rivonia Trial

Trial that took place in South Africa between 1963 and 1964 in which leaders of the ANC were tried. This trial sent Nelson Mandela to prison.

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How did the rest of the world respond?

  • world saw apartheid government was violent and that 'separate development was unequal

  • April 1960 : UN Security Council demanded end to apartheid

  • International demonstrations

  • International anti-apartheid organizations

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Soweto Uprising (date)

1976

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Soweto Uprising factors

  1. Role of Black Consciousness

  2. Strikes of 1973

  3. Liberian of Angola and Mozambique (1975)

  4. Bantu Education and the introduction of Afrikaans as a medium of instruction

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Black Consciousness.

movement to encourage blacks to take pride in their race, overcoming lies they have been told about whites being better than them

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Black Consciousness Movement date

1969

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Leader of Black Consciousness Movement

Steve Biko

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The successful strike action by workers in Durban

-wages dropped and working hours increased

  • 200 000 workers went in strike

  • wages were then increased and hours decreased

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The liberation of Angola and Mozambique

  • white minority rule overthrown (1975) after many years

  • Samora Machel, new leader of Mozambique, became great hero to South African Youth

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Buntu Education and the introduction of Afrikaans as a medium of instruction

  • South African High school students rejected Bantu education

  • Different organisations across he country organised boycotts

  • Afrikaans as a medium if instruction for some subjects was the catalyst for the 1976 Soweto Uprising

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Soweto Uprising.

Students protested a new law requiring Afrikaans in all public schools Police opened fire, two children killed

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Hector Pieterson

A black schoolchild who was the first victim of white riot police during the Soweto Riots.

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Short term consequences of 1970s resistance

  • workers stay away

  • 6 July:Government backed down on AMI (Afrikaans as a Medium of Instruction)

  • uprising spread to rest of SA

  • police brutality

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Long term consequences of 1970s resistance

  • beginning of the end if apartheid

  • 14 000 students joined MK

  • October 1977: Government banned BCM organizations

  • International Media Attention

  • 1977 UN full arms embargo on SA

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Tricameral Parliament (1983)

A parliament with three separate chambers

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United Democratic Front (UDF).

Several anti-apartheid movements joined together to urge people not to vote for separate parliaments

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Million Signatures Campaign.

UDF trying to bring all the oppressed people together, regardless of race or culture

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February 1990

  • Scrapped all apartheid laws

  • Unbanned political parties

  • Released prisoners

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Conflict in 1990 to 1994

  • 14 000 died and 20 000 injured

  • ANC - IFP Violence (leadership vacuum to be filled and pre-existing the ethnic tension flared-up)

  • White conservatives also making their last stand

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Democratic election 1994

  1. Millions of people who had never voted before stood in queues to make their mark

  2. When votes were counted it was clear that the ANC was the ruling party in South Africa

  3. They want 62.65 per-cent of the vote.

  4. Nelson Mandela was inaugurated as South Africa's first democratically elected president

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