Dhameja BIOL 101 Exam 3

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Interphase

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Interphase

Cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases

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G1 phase

The first gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins.

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S phase

The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated.

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G2 phase

The second growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs.

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M phase

The phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis

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G1-> S -> G2 -> M

What are the cell cycle phases in order?

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Mitosis

Division of the nucleus

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Karyokinesis

Technical term for mitosis

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Cytokinesis

Division of the cytoplasm

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Cell cycle control system

controls whether or not a cell goes through the G1, S, G2, and M phase of a cell cycle

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internal and external signals

the cell cycle control system is regulated by

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G1, G2, M

Three major checkpoints in the cell cycle

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G1

Checkpoint where cell size, nutrients, growth factors, and DNA damage are checked; if the cell received all the necessary things from the mother cell or not

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G2

Checkpoint checking whether internal components are correctly replicated; cell size and DNA replication

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M

Checkpoint where spindle assembly the focus

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Down syndrome

Condition caused by spindle fiber failure to detach from chromosomes correctly + lack of cell arrest

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G0 phase

A nondividing state occupied by cells that have left the cell cycle; a quiescent phase

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Apoptosis

Process of programmed cell death

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Cyclin CDK complex

Class of protein that acts as an internal signal to the cell

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CDK

Cyclin-dependent kinases

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Arrests

If Cyclin CDK complexes do not form, then the cell _____

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Maturation Promoting Factor (MPF)

A protein complex required for a cell to progress from late interphase to mitosis. Cyclin CDK complex

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Growth factors

May be food or nourishment, stimulates the cells to grow; lack thereof causes cell to go into conservation instead of dividing

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Density dependent inhibition (DDI)

Inhibition by density and overcrowding; when there is no more room for cells then cell division will not occur

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Tumor

Formed by mutated cells which ignore DDI by growing vertically as horizontal space is filled

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Anchorage dependence

Cell's need for an anchor to remain in place for it to grow and divide

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Substratum

Foundation cells use in anchorage dependence

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Transformation

Process in which normal cells are converted into cancerous ones

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Tumor

Cancer cell mass of abnormal cells

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Benign

Tumor that remains at the original site

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Uninhibited cell proliferation

1st clause of being a cancer

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Metastatic spread

2nd clause of being a cancer

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Easy extremities

Where benign tumors are typically found; more difficult to invade these surrounding spaces

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Malignant

Tumor that invades surrounding tissues

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Softer tissues

Where malignant tumors are typically found; extremely easy to invade these tissues

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Metastasis

The spread of cancer cells beyond their original site

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Secondary tumor

Cancerous tumor that spread from another part of the body to a new part of the body; can be multiple

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Primary tumor

Initial tumor

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Cancer

Aggregation of several genetic diseases

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Mutated, tumor, cancer

Progression of cells into becoming cancer (list states, not a process)

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Cancer cells

Show higher rates of mutation, chromosomal abnormalities, and genomic instability

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Mutation

Alteration in a DNA sequence

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Stem cell

Undifferentiated cell

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Cancer stem cell hypothesis

Rare population of tumor cells while proliferating ends up giving rise to certain cancer stem cells

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Cancer stem cells

Have been found to possess ability for unchallenged growth, resistance, and recurrence, and by doing so are able to undergo self-renewal

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Age-related cancer

Indication that cancer in a cell develops from the accumulation of several mutagens over a period of time

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Protease

Protein breaking enzymes

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Caspases

Responsible for initiating apoptosis and digesting intracellular components; proteases

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Proto-oncogene

Gene whose products promote cell growth and division; needed for proper functioning of a cell

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Tumor suppressor gene

Play a role in regulating cell-cycle checkpoints and initiation of apoptosis

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Oncogenes

Mutated proto-oncogenes which contribute to the development of cancer

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One

Only _____ allele(s) of proto-oncogenes need to be mutated to contribute to cancer

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ras

Proto-oncogene that encodes signal transduction molecules associated with the cell membrane; regulate cell growth and division

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Constant division

Occurs when ras is converted to an oncogene and freezes it into its active confirmation

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p53

Tumor-suppressor gene that encodes nuclear proteins which act as transcription factors for more than 50 genes

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Rise

_____ in expression of p53 gene can arrest cell cycle at several phases

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Decrease

_____ in expression of p53 gene may cause cells to be unable to arrest at cell-cycle checkpoints or enter apoptosis in response to damage

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6x

Asbestos exposure makes people _____ more likely to develop lung cancer

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11x

Being a smoker makes people _____ more likely to develop lung cancer

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Cell division

Process using karyokinesis and cytokinesis

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Allele

Describes the property or version of a gene

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Genome

All of an organism's genetic material

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Histones

Protein molecules around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin

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Diploid

Cell with 2 sets of chromosomes

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Haploid

Cell with 1 set of chromosomes

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46

Diploid number in humans

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23

Haploid number in humans

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Somatic cells

All body cells except for gametes and germ cells

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Germ cells

Only found in gonads and the only cells which undergo meiosis to create gametes

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Gametes

Reproductive cells (sperm and egg)

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Zygote

Fertilized gametes, use mitosis to grow

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Homologous chromosomes

Two chromosomes in a pair; each pair includes one chromosome from each parent

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Similar

Homologous chromosomes are _____

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Sister chromatids

Identical chromosomes that are exactly the same

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Locus

Specific location of a gene on a chromosome

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Mitosis

Cell division that produces identical daughter cells

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Meiosis

Cell division that produces 4 unique daughter cells called gametes

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Fertilization

Union of gametes (sperm + egg)

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Gametes

The only cell produced by meiosis rather than mitosis

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Germ

The only cell to undergo meiosis

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Prophase

Phase when chromatin condenses into chromosomes and they are first visible

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Metaphase

Phase when chromosomes line up in the diameter of the cell

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Anaphase (Mitosis)

Phase where sister chromatids separate and move towards opposite ends of the cell (state mitosis or meiosis I/II)

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Telophase

Phase where daughter nuclei are at opposite ends of the cell and nuclear division is complete; separation of chromosomes already occurred

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Late telophase

When cytokinesis is underway

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Centrosomes

Region where spindle fibers/microtubules are attached at the end of the cell

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Centromere

Area where chromosomes are attached

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Prophase I

Phase when crossing over occurs

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Crossing over

Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis; contributes to genetic variation

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Anaphase I (Meiosis)

Phase when homologous chromosomes separate and are moved to opposite ends of the cell (state mitosis or meiosis I/II)

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Telophase I

Phase when first nuclear division is complete in meiosis

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Prophase II

Phase when chromosomes are already visible and prepare themselves to move to metaphase plate

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Anaphase II

Phase when non-identical sister chromatids separate and move to opposite ends of the cell (state mitosis or meiosis I/II)

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Telophase II

Phase when second nuclear division is complete in meiosis

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4

At the end of meiosis, there are _____ non-identical daughter cells

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Independent assortment of chromosomes

In this process, each pair of chromosomes assorts itself independently of other pairs

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Recombinant chromosomes

Chromosomes that carry genes from each parent, result of crossing over

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Gregor Mendel

Father of modern genetics, discovered basic principles of heredity

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Pea plants

What Mendel experimented with

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Flower color

Most commonly studied aspect of Mendel's pea experiments

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