Chapter 23: The Transport System

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Carbon Dioxide

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49 Terms

1

Carbon Dioxide

________ and wastes leave interstitial fluid and enter a capillary to be excreted from the body.

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2

Amino Acids

________, oxygen, and glucose exit a capillary and enter interstitial fluid to be used by cells.

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3

Hemoglobin

________ is released when red blood cells are destroyed.

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4

Humans

________ have two receiving chambers (atria) and two pumping chambers (ventricles) in the heart.

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5

Plaque

________ can cause a clot to form on the irregular arterial wall.

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6

Oxygen

________ is taken to cells, and carbon dioxide is removed from them by way of air tubes called tracheae.

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7

Tubular Heart Pumps

A(n) ________ hemolymph through a network of channels and cavities in the body.

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8

Hemophilia

________ is an inherited clotting disorder caused by the liver's inability to produce one of the clotting factors.

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9

Cardiovascular System

The ________ takes blood to the capillaries where exchange occurs.

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10

Cerebrovascular Accident

A(n) ________, also called a stroke, often occurs when a small cranial arteriole bursts or is blocked by an embolus.

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11

Valves

________ are located between the atria and ventricles and between the ventricles and attached vessels.

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12

Skeletal Muscle Contraction Pushes

________ blood past valves that prevent backflow.

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13

Lymph

________ is returned to the cardiovascular system when the major lymphatic vessels enter the subclavian veins in the shoulder region.

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14

Normal Composition

The liver modifies substances absorbed by the intestines and monitors the ________ of the blood.

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15

Elastic Fibers

________ allow arteries to expand and accommodate sudden increase in blood volume.

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16

Excess Interstitial Fluid

________ is collected by lymphatic capillaries and becomes lymph.

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17

Diffusion

________ meets the respiratory and excretory needs of the cells.

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18

Antigen

A(n) ________ is most often a protein but sometimes a polysaccharide.

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19

SA Node

The ________ sends out an electrical impulse every 0.85 seconds, which causes the heart to beat.

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20

Exchange of Water

The ________ at a capillary is not exact, and excess interstitial fluid is always produced.

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21

EPO

________ has been abused by athletes to enhance performance.

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22

Terrestrial Animals

The double pumping action is seen in ________ that breathe air.

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23

Arteries

________ branching from the aorta carry blood to all areas and organs of the body.

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24

Thrombin

________ severs two short amino acid chains from each fibrinogen molecule, forming long threads of fibrin that wind around the platelet plug and provide the framework for the clot.

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25

ECGs

________ can be used to diagnose heart problems such as arrhythmias and heart attacks.

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26

Hypertension

________ occurs when blood pressure readings are higher than these numbers.

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27

Growth Factors

________ are available to increase the production of all white blood cells, and these are helpful to people with low immunity, such as AIDS patients.

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28

Smooth Muscle

________ strengthens the wall and prevents overexpansion.

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29

Tracheae

________ are found throughout the body and provide efficient transport and delivery of respiratory gases while restricting water loss.

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30

Vitamin K

________ is necessary for the production of prothrombin and can be found in green vegetables and formed by intestinal bacteria.

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31

Antigens

________ are present in the outer covering of parasites or in their toxins.

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32

Diastole

________: The atria and ventricles relax, filling with blood.

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33

Cardiovascular Disease

________ (CVD) is the leading cause of untimely death in Western countries.

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34

Cardiac Cycle

The ________ is controlled by the SA node, a group of cells in the heart that generate electrical impulses.

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35

Death

If the heart stops pumping, ________ results because exchanges in the lungs and tissues are crucial.

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36

Neutrophils

________ are white blood cells that squeeze through the capillary wall and enter the interstitial fluid, where they phagocytize foreign material.

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37

Atherosclerosis

________ begins in early adulthood and develops progressively through middle age.

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38

Hepatic Veins

The ________ carry blood out of the liver into the inferior vena cava.

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39

O2 Poor

________ blood from all regions of the body collects in the right atrium.

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40

Capillary Beds

________ are widespread and allow efficient exchange of substances between the blood and interstitial fluid.

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41

Plasma

________ also contains smaller quantities of nutrients, wastes, and salts.

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42

Arterioles Branch

________ into capillaries, which are extremely narrow tubes that allow exchange of nutrients and waste molecules.

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43

Septum

The ________ separates the right side from the left and prevents the mixing of blood.

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44

Normal Rhythm

A defibrillator is a device that can be used to shock the heart back into a(n) ________.

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45

Circulatory System

A(n) ________ consists of a heart and associated vessels.

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46

Prothrombin

________ and fibrinogen are two proteins involved in blood clotting that are manufactured and deposited in blood by the liver.

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47

Closed

A ____________ circulatory system is a system in which blood flows through a closed network of vessels. This means that the blood never leaves the vessels, but rather circulates through them continuously.

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48

Pulmonary

The ____________ circuit is the part of the circulatory system that carries blood from the heart to the lungs and back again. The blood in the pulmonary circuit is deoxygenated, and it picks up oxygen in the lungs before returning to the heart.

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49

Pulmonary

The ____________ arteries are the two arteries that carry deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs. The pulmonary arteries divide into smaller and smaller branches as they enter the lungs, eventually reaching the alveoli, where the blood exchanges oxygen for carbon dioxide.

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