Marine Ecology: Taxonomy

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Classification vs. Taxonomy


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Classification vs. Taxonomy


  • the grouping of items based on a set of standards

  • binomial nomenclature

  • modern systems of classifications use evolutionary relationships


  • the study of the relationships between organisms

  • has categories

Biodiversity vs. Genetic diversity vs. Ecological diversity


  • the number of different species in a given area

Genetic diversity

  • Between members of the same species

Ecological diversity

  • Differs depending on climate changes (if abiotic factors don't change much, it will have higher biodiversity)

regional biodiversity effects: Latitude, altitude, nutrient level

  • Biodiversity increases as latitude and altitude decrease

  • Lower levels of nutrients have the most biodiversity (clear water = little nutrients. Coral reefs are the second-most biodiverse ecosystems on earth)

Taxa, from least to most specific

Domain Kings Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

Don't Kings Play Chess On Fine Green Sands

Kingdom Animalia

  • Under domain eukarya

  • multicellular

  • heterotrophs

  • sexual and asexual reproduction (budding)

  • Cells are organized into tissues and organs (complex organ systems)

  • Most animals are motile for at least portion of life cycle

Kingdom Plantae

  • under domain eukarya

  • mostly multicellular

  • cell wall composed of cellulose

  • most are autotrophic (few are heterotrophic)

  • sexual reproduction with flowers and cones

  • asexual reproduction with budding and fragmentation

Kingdom Fungi

  • under domain eukarya

  • unicellular or multicellular

  • heterotrophic

  • reproduces sexually and asexually (spores, budding/fragmentation, or hyphae)

  • No motility

  • Cell walls contain chitin (carbohydrate)

  • Threadlike structures called hyphae used for feeding, growth, and reproduction

Kingdom Protista

  • under domain eukarya

  • Most are unicellular, but can be colonial, or multicellular

  • heterotrophic + autotrophic

  • Motility = species-specific: flagella, cilia, pseudopods

  • Can reproduce asexually (binary fission/budding) or sexually

  • 3 categories - Plant-like - Animal-like - Fungus-like

  • Primarily live in aquatic/marine environments, and are even found living in humans

Phylum Annelida

segmented worms

Phylum Arthropoda

jointed legs + exoskeleton

Phylum Bryozoa

only colonial + all filter feeders

Phylum Chordata

Dorsal spinal cord + vertebrates

Phylum Chaetognatha

Worm-like - slim with fins

Phylum Cnidaria

Radial symmetry + No brain + Eye spots+ Singular hole for feeding and excretion

Phylum Ctenophora

Bilaterally symmetrical + Bioluminescence + Clear + Comb rows of fused cilia for movement

Phylum Echinodermata

Inner shell + Tubed feet + Radial symmetry

Phylum Mollusca

Mantle, secretes shell of mollusk + Muscular foot

Phylum Porifera

All sessile + Strictly filter feeders + pore bearing