Cities - The Sumerians built their cities out of sun dried mud brick because they had little to no wood or stone. They had to use and adapt to the resources they had. They built a ziggurat for their most important chiefs, gods, and goddesses.
Well-Organized Governments - had a theocratic monarchy. This government was based on everyone looking up to Pharaoh as a ruler because he was able to communicate with Gods. Whenever the Pharaoh makes a law, that law is said to be from a God who directs the pharaoh on how to rule the country.
Complex Religions - Egypt was polytheistic but the supreme god was Amon-Re The pharaoh was viewed as being linked to Amon-Re and Egypt was a theocracy, where the ruler is connected to a god. Egyptians believed in the afterlife. They believed that they would be judged by their deeds when they passed. Anubis (guide of the underworld) would decide if they were pure to continue to the afterlife. Devourer of Souls would take them and demolish them but if they passed they would go into the Other World which is considered beautiful
Job Specialization - There were four major job specializations in China. Those professions were scholars (which included doctors and warriors), farmers, artisans (artists and craftsmen), and merchants. These jobs were considered on the more important side so they encourage kids to study them in school.
Social Classes - Brahmans – highest social class, priests, they were in charge of the religious ceremonies, Kshatriyas – they were the warriors and rulers, Vaisyas - Merchants and artisans, Sudras – most of the Indian population, they were manual laborers who held limited rights, Untouchables – not considered a caste, Untouchables collected trash and moved dead bodies, they were not considered human, they lived in separate areas
Arts and Architecture - Egypt has many historical architecture landmarks, including the pyramids of Giza and The sphinx. The pyramids were built because the pyramids represented the strength of Egyptian civilization, pyramids were built for powerful emperors, built with slant so the emperors could travel to heaven with ease.
Public Works - The Sumerians built sewer drainage systems, public baths, private baths. This showed that they cared about hygiene and health of their people. It also showed how complex they were as a civilization. Having a sewage systems was a big development of society which made their cities grow larger.
Writing - Chinese calligraphy was invented by the SHang dynasty. This writing system was the same throughout CHina so they could all communicate with each other. This led them to keep track of history. China kept track of their advancements, wars, and rulers.
Writing was the most important characteristic of a civilization. Writing helped them keep track of record keeping. As civilizations become more advanced and complex; they need to keep records. It helped the government keep track of files; they documented taxes and laws. Writing helped priests keep track of calendars for important rituals so the gods wouldn’t get angry and harm the land and or the civilization. It helped merchants record their clients and debuts as wells. They also kept track of history, like important historical events. They kept records of war, natural disasters, and rulers. Writing helped cities become more developed because it made the government stongert and helped people do their jobs with more ease.