Unit 2 - Middle East - Student Guide - FROM https://quizlet.com/723295722/unit-2-middle-east-student-guide-flash-cards/

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Abrahamic Religions


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31 Terms

Abrahamic Religions

3 religions that regard Abraham as their ancestor in faith: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

Dar al-Islam

an Arabic term that means the "house of Islam" and that refers to lands under Islamic rule


Islamic Spain

House of Wisdom

An academic center for research and translation of foreign texts that was established in Baghdad in 830 C.E. by the Abbasid caliph al-Mamun.


a Muslim group that accepts only the descendants of the Umayyads as the true rulers of Islam


the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad


The branch of Islam that believes in a more mystical connection with Allah.


Islamic/Muslim place of worship


A school for the study of Muslim law and religious science


the person who leads prayers in a mosque.


Poll tax that non-Muslims had to pay when living within a Muslim empire


a law code drawn up by Muslim scholars after Muhammad's death; it provided believers with a set of practical laws to regulate their daily lives


Mongol state that ruled Persia after abolition of the Abbasid empire in the thirteenth century


Member of a prominent family of the Mongols' Jagadai Khanate, Timur through conquest gained control over much of Central Asia and Iran. He consolidated the status of Sunni Islam as orthodox, and his descendants, the Timurids, maintained his empire.

Lateen Sail

triangular sail that made it possible to sail against the wind; used in the Indian Ocean trade


An instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets


Ship of small to moderate size used in the western Indian Ocean, traditionally with a triangular sail and a sewn timber hull.

Diasporic communities

immigrants who have relocated from their ancestral homelands and retain their distinct cultural identities as ethnic minority groups in their new host countries


The tribute of boy children that the Ottoman Turks levied from their Christian subjects in the Balkans; the Ottomans raised the boys for service in the civil administration or in the elite Janissary infantry corps.


Christian boys taken from families, converted to Islam, and then rigorously trained to serve the sultan;

Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826.

Ottoman Tax Farming

The state auctioned taxation rights to the highest bidder, who then collected the state taxes and made payments in fixed installments, keeping a part of the tax revenue for his own use


"Tax farms" under the Ottoman social order that petty landowners could generate some income off of;

"landed estates" given to the ottoman ruling class for their loyalty and services to the sultan. They were allowed to enjoy them, but ownership returned to the sultan upon death. This prevented families from taking roots. (lack of hereditary nobility and private property unlike European counterparts)


Invented within China during the 9th century, this substance was became the dominate military technology used to expand European and Asian empires by the 15th century.

Ottoman Empire used this a lot and were masters of it, making their armies some of the most dominant of the time.


Military and political leader with absolute authority over a Muslim country


Persian word for king;

a title of the former monarch of Iran.


Chief minister

a high government official in ancient Egypt or in Muslim countries;

chief minister who supervised the business of government in ancient Egypt

Abbasid Caliphate

third of the Islamic Caliphates of the Islamic Empire. The rulers who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphs. In started in 750 CE. It flourished for two centuries, but slowly went into decline with the rise to power of the Turkish army it had created, the Mamluks. In the 13th century the Mongols displaced them.

Malmuk Sultanate

Malmuks seize control of Egypt and create state

Seljuk Turks

nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly

Ottoman Empire

Major Islamic state centered on Anatolia that came to include the Balkans, the Near East, and much of North Africa.

Lasted from 1300's to 1922.

Safavid Empire

Shi'ite Muslim dynasty that ruled Persia between 16th and 18th centuries.

Fought a lot with Ottoman Empire due to differences in religious beliefs